「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark



Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus

About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions

The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Highlighted Illustrations

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera

The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama

 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page

Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern

ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550

1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto

1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise


     c. 1550 to c. 1628?

The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources

1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters

1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō

1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750

1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?

1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?

c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions

1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts

The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'

Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives

1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY


1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia

1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"

Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.

1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws


     1945 ...

1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto

1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"

Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"

The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan

3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...

1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages

Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators

Literature / References


Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku - "Version 3" Document Copy

I am in deep gratitude to Mr. Yamakawa Sōkyū, 山川宗休, Kōkoku-ji near Yura in Wakayama Prefecture, Mr. Ōno Osamu, 大野治, the Central Public Citizen's Hall in Yura, and Mr. Simura Satosi, 志村哲, and Mrs. Tsukitani Tsuneko, 月溪恒子, both Ōsaka University, for their generous helping me with - and acknowledging - this research project of mine, back in the 1980s and later on, respectively.

Please also refer to these directly related web pages:

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

The version of the Kaidō honsoku that was investigated and truthfully copied and described by Nakatsuka Chikuzen during the late 1930s and also published in reprint in 1938 by the Kōkoku Temple itself, edited by Mori Hikotarō, could in no possible way be the very original version of that credo:

Both of the two opening paragraphs being presented in the known reprints can only have been added sometime after 1628.

Second - most probably first sometime during the 1650s - came this addition at the top, the uppermost of the two "headers", so to speak:



"When Hottō Kokushi returned to his native country, he was accompanied by four Buddhist laymen: Kuo Tsuo. Li Cheng, Tseng Shu & Pao P'u [in Japanese: Kokusa(ku), Risei, Sōjo and Hōfu]."

Do also read about the "Version 2" Document Copy on this web page:

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2"

The complete, preserved copy of the printed versions of the Kaidō honsoku kan be explored here:

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


When you study the main body of the Kaidō honsoku (renumbered paragraphs 1-19) - beginning with "Where from does the Komo come?" - and compare that whole text with the two opening paragraphs (renumbered 00 & 0), or headlines, you will realize that there is nothing there semantically that confirms the contents and "messaging" being expressed in those two headlines, at all.

Re paragraph 0:

"Kaidō honsoku. Issued from Yura in the Kii Province."

None of the 16 branches of the komosō movement listed at the end can in any way be convincingly connected with the small coastal town Yura in modern Wakayama Prefecture (the former Kii Province) - and Shinchi Kakushin's Kōkoku Temple there!

Further, it also clearly appears as if the title Kaidō honsoku, lit.: "Coastal Route(s) Basic Rules", can only have been a later addition - a description more than any actual "document title".
Just as, be it such a very formal honsoku document one would certainly expect information about the place and agent of origin to be given at the very end - not at the top of the script.

So, in other words, the main body of the Kaidō honsoku could in fact have originated many places in Japan.

Re paragraph 00:

"When Hottō Kokushi returned to his native country [i.e. Japan], he was accompanied by four Buddhist laymen:
Kuo Tsuo, Li Cheng, Tseng Shu & Pao P'u -
[in Japanese: Kokusa(ku), Risei, Sōjo and Hōfu]."

It really needs, once more, to be stressed and strongly underscored that there is to be found no proof at all of the idea that Shinchi Kakushin, a.k.a. Hottō Kokushi, was ever accompanied by "four Chinese Buddhist laymen", when he returned from his "Zen Buddhist" training and research stay in China in 1254!

That is part of the Kyotaku denki myth that was fabricated, most probably, in the period 1665-1675 by some quite early komusō who desperately needed a solid cover story to legitimize their claim of being members of a very old, highly esteemed and privileged class of ascetic followers of the early 9th century Chinese Ch'an (Zen) monk Fuke (Ch.: P'u-k'o).

Those four, though completely imaginary, made-up "persons" apparently had to be invented in order to play some cunning role as "Chinese ancestors" of four of the most prominent branches of later to emerge komusō who were already listed among a total of 16 in all in the Kaidō honsoku in 1628.
Those four were the following:

Par. 17-7: The 'Kaka-ha', or 'Kagari-ha'?, of the later established Reihō-ji temple in Musashi, modern Kantō region, the earliest mention of which is in a document dated in the 6th month of 1677.
That branch later came to be known as the 'Kassō-ha', as Kassō was at sometime invented to have been acting as a direct (though of course legendary) disciple of Kokusa(ku)'s.

Par. 17-11: The 'Kinzen-ha' of the later established Ichigetsu-ji temple in Shimotsuke, modern NW Chiba Prefecture.
The earliest known document I have so far found and studied that mentions the Ichigetsu-ji is dated as late as the 7th month of 1730.
The legendary founder of that temple and of the 'Kinsen-ha' was invented to be named 'Kinsen', an alleged disciple of the legendary Chinese "Buddhist layman" Hōfu.

Par. 17-12: The 'Kogiku-ha' of the much later established Shingetsu-ji temple i Shimotsuke, modern Ibaraki Prefecture, date unknown.
The legendary founder of that "temple" and of the temple's transmission line was invented to having been the seventh in succession after the Chinese Buddhist layman named Risei.

Par. 17-14: The 'Umeji-ha' of either the Shōgan-ji temple in Hitachi, modern Tochigi Prefecture, or the Jijō-ji in present Gunma Prefecture.
I have, however, so far not found any evidence of any direct relation between the fourth Chinese layman Sōjo and any "Umeji layman founder of any of those two so called "Fuke temples".

Summing up, the "Kakushin/Four Chinese Buddhist Laymen" fabricated narrative was actually, at the very earliest, invented and put into writing by the Japanese Zen abbot Isshi Bunshu in a personal letter to a certain very early komusō named Sandō Mugetsu, a letter that would have been written no earlier than during the early 1640s, no later than 1645, or 1646, the year of Isshi's death.

Read much more about Isshi Bunshu and his letter here:
1646 at the latest: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a "Proto-komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu
and here about the The Hottō Kokushi / Shinchi Kakushin Legend:
1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Shinchi Kakushin Legend: The "Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku

To the front page To the top