「修行尺八」歴史的証拠の研究   ホームページ
      'Shugyō Shakuhachi' rekishi-teki shōko no kenkyū hōmupēji -

The "Ascetic Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Guide to the Documentation & Critical Study of Ascetic, Non-Dualistic Shakuhachi Culture, East & West:
Historical Chronology, Philology, Etymology, Vocabulary, Terminology, Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark


Introduction / Front Page / Home

Go to this web page to navigate
     and explore the site:

Main Menu Items List - Site Map:
     All Web Pages on this Website

New Web Pages and Web Page Updates

Literature in Eastern Languages

Literature in Western Languages


Contact Info

Wave pattern

Wave - or particle?

Japanese Zen sand garden

Detail of Zen sand garden
at Daisen-in, Daitoku-ji, Kyōto
'Standing waves' ...
Early 16th century
Photo: T.O.

Literature in Western Languages

List of references for all of this websites' research web pages

The bibliography is being continuously updated.


Carl Abbott: Blowing Zen. Original edition.
     Center for Taoist Thought and Fellowship, 1992.

Carl Abbott: Blowing Zen - One Breath, One Mind II.
     Revised expanded edition; includes Blowing Zen II.
     Center for Taoist Thought and Fellowship, 2012.

Mikael S. Adolphson: The Gates of Power: Monks, Courtiers,
     and Warriors in Premodern Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2000.

Christoph Anderl: Studies in the Language of Zǔ-táng jí, Volume One.
     Dr. Art. dissertation, University of Oslo, Norway, 2004.
     In: Acta Humaniora, 213, Universiteit Gent, 2004.
     Download link:

Christoph Anderl: Studies in the Language of Zǔ-táng jí, Volume Two.
     Dr. Art. dissertation, University of Oslo, Norway, 2004.
     In: Acta Humaniora, 213, Universiteit Gent, 2004.
     Download link:

Peter Judd Arnesen: The Medieval Japanese Daimyo.
     Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1979

Sonja Arntzen, translator: Ikkyū and the Crazy cloud anthology,
     a Zen poet of Medieval Japan. Foreword by Shūichi Katō.
     University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1986.

James H. Austin: Zen and the Brain:
     Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness.
     MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1998.


Helen Josephine Baroni: Ōbaku Zen. The Emergence of the Third
     Sect of Zen in Tokugawa Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2000.

Helen Josephine Baroni: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism.
     The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 2002.

George M. Beckman: The Making of the Meiji Restoration.
     The Oligarchs and the Constitutional Development of Japan, 1868-1891.
     University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1957.

Robert Neelly Bellah: Tokugawa religion: The cultural roots of modern Japan.
     Free Press, 1985.

Nick Bellando & Bruno Deschênes: "The Role of Tone-colour in Japanese Shakuhachi Music."
     Ethnomusicology Review 22(1), 2023.

Nick Bellando: "Shakuhachi History: Hitoyogiri: Samurai and Monkey Bones."
     In: European Shakuhachi Society Newsletter
     – Spring/Summer 2021, pp. 44-47.

Donald Paul Berger: "The Shakuhachi and the Kinko Ryū Notation."
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn, pp. 32-72.
     Texas University Press, 1969.

Donald Paul Berger & David W. Hughes: "Shakuhachi".
     Pages 532 to 534 in: S. Stanley & J. Tyrrell (editors):
     The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Vol. 9: "Iacobus to Kerman: Japan."
     Macmillan Publishers, London, 2001.

Bob Berlin-Grous & Monty H. Levenson: The Sound of Bamboo:
     Blowing Zen & The Spirit of Shakuhachi.
     Tai Hei shakuhachi, Willits, CA, USA, 2019.

Dominique Bertrand: Le corps du souffle: Voyage au coeur du son Broché.
     Editions Signatura, 2019.

Nancy Moore Bess: Bamboo in Japan.
     Kodansha Publishing, Tokyo, 2001.

Dr. Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya: "Dhyana (Meditation): Theory and Practice."
     Publ. online in 2019 on
     Link URL:

Steen Bille: Corvetten Galathea's Reise omkring Jorden 1845, 46 og 47. Anden Deel,
     Forlagt af Universitetsboghandler C. A. Reítzel,
     Kjöbenhavn, 1850.

Martina Binnig: Die Honkyoku in der Traditionslinie von Itchōken.
     Zum Repertoire des Shakuhachi-Tempels in Fukuoka/Japan.
     Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln. Musikwissenschaft (M.A.)
     Masterarbeit (M.A.) dated and submitted September 28, 2017.

Karen E. Bjerre: 'The Denmark-Japan Society's First 50 Years.'
     In the 50th anniversary book Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008,
     Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel: 'Snapshot: Syakuhati "Walking on its own"'.
     The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Vol. 7, pp. 707-709.
     Publ. by Routledge, 2002.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel: A Shakuhachi Odyssey. The Single Tone:
     A Personal Journey into Shakuhachi Music.
     Printed Matter Press: Tokyo, 2005.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel: "Shakuhachi fantasy and fact."
     In: C. Blasdel, The single tone: A personal journey into shakuhachi music.
     Kindle version by Single Tone Productions, pp. 33-47.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel: The Single Tone:
     A Personal Journey into Shakuhachi Music.
     Kindle version by Single Tone Productions.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel interviewed by Anonymous: "The Sound of Zen".
     In: THE NATION, Thailand’s premier English Language Newspaper.
     Interview with Christopher Yohmei Blasdel. Publ. on Feb. 8, 1999

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Tokyo, 1988, reprinted in 2008.
     Available at

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 1: General Introduction.
     From the Upanishads to Huineng. The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1960.

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 4: Mumonkan.
     The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1966, 1974.

Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby, Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl, editors.
     50th anniversay book published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Jørn Borup: Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Myōshinji, a living religion.
     Numen Book Series, Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2008.

C.R. Boxer: The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650.
     Carcarnet Press Limited, Manchester, 1993.
     First published in 1951 by The University of
     California Press & the Cambridge University Press.

William Bramsen: Japanese Chronological Tables.
     Printed at the "Seishi Bunsha" office, Tokyo, 1880.

Christopher Brickell, editor: Encyclopedia of Garden Plants:
     The American HorticulturalSociety.
     Macmillan, New York, 1990.

Christopher Brickell, editor-in-chief: The Royal Horticultural Society
     A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Dorling Kindersley,
     London, New York, Stuttgart, Moscow, 1996.

Ray Brooks: Blowing Zen: Finding an Authentic Life.
     Revised & Expanded Edition.
     Sentient Publications, LLC, Boulder, Colorado, 2011.

John S. Brownlee: Japanese Historians and the National Myths, 1600-1945.
     The Age of the Gods and Emperor Jinmu.
     UBC Press, Vancouver & University of Tokyo Press, 1997.

David D. Buck: "Three Han Dynasty Tombs at Ma-Wang-Tui."
     In: World Archaeology, Vol. 7, No. 1, Burial (Jun., 1975),
     pp. 30-45. Published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd.


John Cage: Silence - Lectures and Writings.
     Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, Connecticutt, 1961, 1971.

Schuyler van R. Cammann: 'Types of Symbols in Chinese Art.'
     In: The American Anthropologist, 'Studies in Chinese Thought',
     Vol. 55, No. 55, Part 2, 1953.

Edmund Capon and William MacQuitty: Princess of Jade.
     Cardinal/Sphere Book, London, 1973.

Steven D. Carter: 'Chats with the Master: Selections from "Kenzai zōdan".'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 295-347.

Steven Casano: "From Fuke Shuu to Uduboo: The Transnational Flow of the Shakuhachi to the West."
     In: The World of Music, Vol. 47, No. 3,
     The Music of "Others" in the Western World, 2005, pp. 17-33.
     Publ. by VWB - Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung

Wing-tsit Chan: The Platform Scripture. The Basic Classic of Zen Buddhism.
     St. John's University Press, New York, 1963, 1975.

Cheng Te-k'un: 'Yin-Yang Wu-hsing and Han Art'.
     In: Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 20, 1-2, 1957.

Michael Church, editor: The Other Classical Musics, Fifteen Great Traditions.
     Boydell Press/Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England, 2016.
     Chapter 3 on pages 74-103: "Japan", by David W. Hughes.
     On pages 84-87: "The shakuhachi and its music."

Hubert S.J. Cieslik: 'The Great Martyrdom in Edo, 1623.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica X, 1954, pp. 1-44.
     Link to online PDF file:

Jonathan Clements: Christ's Samurai: The True Story of the Shimabara Rebellion.
     Published by Robinson, London, 2016.

Martin Collcutt: Five Mountains. The Rinzai Zen Monastic Institution
     in Medieval Japan.
     Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London, 1981.

Michael S.J. Cooper: They Came to Japan. An Anthology of European Reports
     on Japan, 1543-1640.
     University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1965.

Jean Crasset: The History of the Church of Japan.
     Written originally in French by Monsieur L'Abbe de T.
     and now translated into English by N.N. 2 volumes, 2010.
     Originally published in 1705-1707.

Peter Crossley-Holland: 'Non-Western Music.'
     In: The Pelican History of Music I: Ancient Forms to Polyphony: Japan.
     Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, 1975, pp. 60-69.


Peter N. Dale: The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness.
     First publ. by Croom Helm Ltd., 1986.
     Reprinted by Routledge, London, 1988.

Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008. 50th anniversary celebration book.
     Edited by Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby,
     Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl.
     Published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Kiku Day & Asger Bosendal Christensen: "Mere end et instrument".
     In English: "More than an Instrument".
     Published on the internet on July 10, 2023, by
     Link to article/interview:
     Link to Youtube video:

Kiku Day: 'Mindful playing: a practice research investigation into shakuhachi playing and meditation'.
     Article in Ethnomusicology Forum, 31.1, pages 143-159, February 8, 2002.
     Direct link, URL:

Kiku Day: 'Place and Locality in Fuke-Style Shakuhachi: The Case of Nezasa-ha Kinpūryū.'
     Chapter 13 in: Presence Through Sound: Music and Place in East Asia.
     Edited By Keith Howard & Catherine Ingram.
     Farnham: Ashgate, Routledge, 2020.

Kiku Day: Remembrance of Things Past: Creating a repertoire
     for the archaic jinashi shakuhachi.
     PhD from SOAS, University of London, 2010.

Kiku Day: 'Takemitsu Tōru's November Steps: Bringing 'East' and 'West'
     together or Auto-Exoticism?'
     In: Exploring East Asia: Selected Conference Papers,
     Durham East Asian Papers 19, pp. 62-79, Durham, 2005.

Kiku Day: 'The Changes in the Construction of the Jinashi Shakuhachi
     in the late 20th and early 21st Century.'
     In: European Shakuhachi Society Journal, July 1, 2011.

Kiku Day: 'The Effect of Meiji Government Policy on Traditional
     Japanese Music: The case of the shakuhachi.'
     In: 'Nineteenth Century Music Review', Cambridge,
     Volume 10, Issue 02, pp. 265-292,
     Cambridge University Press, December 2013.
     Link to online PDF file:

Kiku Day: "Zen Buddhism and Music: Spiritual Shakuhachi Tours to Japan."
     Chapter 147 in: The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities,
     Practices and Politics. Edited by Stanley D. Brunn.
     New York: Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 2013.

Kiku Day, co-editor with Matt Gillan and Patrick Huang: Folk and Songs in Japan and Beyond:
     Ethnomusicological Essays in Honour of David W. Hughes.
     Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Cambridge, 2022

Kiku Day & Kenneth Larsen: "Music for Longchenpa.
     Meditative Explorations for Clarinet and Shakuhachi."
     Booklet/liner notes for 2022 CD recorded by
     Kenneth Larsen & Kiku Day. 32-page informative booklet.
     Prod. & publ. in 2022 by Vækstcentret, Nr. Snede, Denmark.

Dave Dobbs: "Zen Gamma".
     Article about meditating Zen monks and brain wave activity.
     Publ. in in the journal Scientific Amerian Mind:
     SA Mind 16, 1, 9 (April 2005)

Hugh De Ferranti: Japanese Musical Instruments.
     Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000.

Max Deeg: 'Komusō and "Shakuhachi Zen". From Historical Legitimation
     to the Spiritualisation of a Buddhist denomination in the Edo Period.'
     In: 'Japanese Religions', Vol. 32 (1 & 2): pp. 7-38, 2007.

Bruno Deschênes: 'B Deschenes: Shakuhachi a Reinvented Tradition.'
     English summary of the author's book in French,
     "Le Shakuhachi Japonais", Paris, 2017.
     Link to online PDF version:

Bruno Deschênes: "Japanese Traditional Instrumental Music. An overview of solo and ensemble development."
     Web article, no date. Link:

Bruno Deschênes: Le shakuhachi japonais. Une tradition réinventée.
     Editions L'Harmattan, Paris, 2017.

Bruno Deschênes: 'The Interest of Westerners in Non-Western Music.'
     In: World of Music-London Then Berlin-, January 1, 2005.

Bruno Deschênes: Transmusicality, Mastering a Music from Another Culture."
     Zagreb, Croatian Musicological Society, 2022.

Sebastian Dobson: Unter den Augen des Preussen-Adlers, Lithographien, Zeichnungen und Photographien
     der Teilnehmer der Eulenburg-Expedition in Japan, 1860-61,
     Under eagle eyes, lithographs, drawings & photographs from the Prussian expedition to Japan, 1860-61,
     Sebastian Dobson; Sven Saaler, 1968-; Deutsche Gesellschaft fü:r Natur- und Vö:lkerkunde Ostasiens, 2012

John Dougill: In Search of Japan's Hidden Christians.
     A Story of Suppression, Secrecy and Survival.
     Tuttle Publishing, 2012, 2015.

Heinrich Dumoulin: A History of Zen Buddhism.
     Pantheon Books, New York, 1963.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 1: India & China.
     Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
     World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 2: Japan.
     Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
     World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.


James Rhys Edwards: 'Theory "Between Inside and Outside": A Response to Zachary Wallmark's
     "Sacred Abjection in Zen Shakuhachi".'
     Ethnomusicology Review, Volume 17 (2012)

George Elison & Bardwell L. Smith, editors:
     Warlords, Artists, and Commoners.
     Japan in the Sixteenth Century.      University Press of Hawaii, 1981.

Sir Charles Elliot: Japanese Buddhism. London, 1935.
     3rd impression, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1964.

Shusaku Endo / Endō Shūsaku: Silence.
     Original Japanese novel published in 1966.
     Peter Owen Publishers, London, 2003, 2007 & 2009.
     English translation first published in 1969
     by Sophia University Press. Tokyo,
     Copyright © by William Johnston, 1969.
     Movie by Martin Scors´se published in 2016.


David Farrelly: The Book of Bamboo.
     Sierra Club Books, San Fransisco, 1984.

Louis Frédéric: Japan Encyclopedia.
     Harvard University Press, 2005.

Ingrid Fritsch: Die Solo-Honkyoku der Tozan-Schule: Musik für
     Shakuhachi zwischen Tradition und Moderne Japans.
     In: Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Vol. 4,
     Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1979.

Ronald H. Fritze: Invented Knowledge. False History, Fake Science and Pseudo-religions.
     Reaktion Books, London, 2009.

Fujii Joji: Edo jidai no o-fure.
     "Public Proclamations in Edo Period Japan."
     Yamakawa Shuppansha, Tokyo, 2013.

Fung Yu-lan: A Short History of Chinese Philosophy.
     The Free Press, New York & Collier-MacMillan Limited,
     London, 1948, 1968.


Robert Garfias: Music of a Thousand Autumns.
     The Tōgaku Style of Japanese Court Music.
     University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975.

Robert Garfias: Music of a Thousand Autumns.
     The Tōgaku Style of Japanese Court Music.
     An Analysis of Theory in Practice.
     Dissertation. University of California press, 1965.

Matt Gillan: "Sankyoku Magazine and the Invention of the Shakuhachi
     as Religious Instrument in Early 20th-Century Japan."
     In: Yale Journal of Music & Religion, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2021.

Gerald Groemer: Street Performers and Society in Urban Japan, 1600-1900:
     The Beggar's Gift.
     Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia, January 2016.

Robert Grous - see Bob Berlin-Grous.

R.H. van Gulik: Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute.
     Sophia University, Tokyo, and The Charles E. Tuttle Company,
     Rutland, Tokyo, 1941, 1969.

Gunsho ruijū, Vol. 28. First published in 1733 by Hanawa Hokiichi.
     Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1933.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Die Shakuhachi der Kinko-Schule.
     In the series 'Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Band 5.
     Bärenreiter - Kassel, Basel, London, 1983.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Shakuhachi. Aspects of History, Practice and
     Teaching. PhD thesis, Wesleyan University, USA, 1974.

Andreas Gutzwiller: "The Shakuhachi of the Fuke-Sect: Instrument of Zen."
     In: The World of Music Vol. 26, No. 3, Sacred Music II (1984), pp. 53-65 (13 pages)
     Published by: VWB - Verlag füaut;r Wissenschaft und Bildung.

Andreas Gutzwiller & Gerald Bennett: 'The world of a single sound:
     basic structure of the music of the japanese flute shakuhachi.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 36-60.


Eta Harich-Schneider: A History of Japanese Music.
     Oxford University Press, London, 1973.

Eta Harich-Schneider: The Rhythmical Patterns in Gagaku and Bugaku.
     E.J. Bill, 1954.

William Harmless: Mystics.
     Oxford University Press, 2008.

LeRon James Harrison: "From Martial Arts to Practice: A Philosophical Examination of the Term Martial Art."
     In: Philosophy Study, August 2015, Vol. 5, No. 8, 383-394.

LeRon James Harrison: "Gagaku in Place and Practice: A Philosophical Inquiry
     into the Place of Japanese Imperial Court."
     In: Asian Music, Volume 48, Number 1, Winter/Spring 2017, pp. 4-27.

Peter Haskel: Bankei Zen. Translations from the Record of Bankei.
     Edited by Yoshito Hakeda.
     Grove Press, Inc. New York, 1984.

James Earl Hathaway Jr.: Zen and the Samurai:
     Rethinking Ties Between Zen and the Warrior.
     Masters Theses, Graduate School,
     University of Tennessee, Knoxville, May 2006.

Hayashi Nozomu & Peter Francis Kornicki: Early Japanese books in Cambridge University Library.
     Cambridge University Press Repr., Cambridge, 1991.

Carolyn Martha Haynes: Parody in the maikyōgen
     and the monogurui kyōgen. Ph.D. thesis.
     Cornell University, USA, 1988.
     Available online at
     Cat. no. AAT 8804579.

Bhikshuni Heng Ch'i, trsl.: The Shurangama Sutra, Vol. III.
     The Buddhist Text Translation Company,
     San Francisco, California, 1980.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in der Kunst des Bogenschiessens.
     Weller, Konstanz, 1948; Barth, München-Planegg, 1951.
     Published in English in 1953. Published in Japanese in 1955.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in the Art of Archery.
     United States, 1953.
     Originally published in German in 1948.

Hirai Tomio: Psychophysiology of Zen
     Igaku Shoin, Tokyo, 1978.

Hirai Tomio: Zen and the Mind. Scientific Approach to Zen Practice.
     Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo, 1978.

Hisamatsu Shin'ichi: Zen and the Fine Arts.
     Kodansha International Ltd.,
     Tokyo, New York & San Fransisco, 1971.

Lewis Hodous and William E. Soothill: A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms:
     with Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index.
     Routledge, 1937, 1970, 1977, 2003.

Frank Hoff: Song, Dance and Storytelling: Aspects of the
     Performing Arts in Japan.
     Cornell East Asia Series Number 15, 1978.

Hori Ichirō/Ichiro Hori: 'On the Concept of Hijiri (Holy Man).'
     In: Numen 5, 2 (April), pp. 128-160; Numen 5, 3 (September), pp. 199-232, 1958.

Victor Sōgen Hori: Zen Sand. The Book of Capping Phrases
     for Kōan Practice.
     Compiled, translated, and annotated by Victor Sōgen Hori.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2003.

Hitomi Tonomura: "Forging the Past. Medieval Counterfeit Documents."
     Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring, 1985), pp. 69-96.

Gregg W. Howard: 'Musico-religious implications of some
     Buddhist views of sound and music in the Sūrangama Sūtra.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 95-101.

David W. Hughes: "Japan."
In: Michael Church, editor: The Other Classical Musics: Fifteen Great Traditions.
     Boydell Press/Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England, 2016.
     Chapter 3, pp. 74-103; notes pp. 363-64.
     On pages 84-87: "The shakuhachi and its music."

Nam-lin Hur: Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan:
     Buddhism, Anti-Christianity, and the Danka System.
     Harvard East Asian Monographs 282, Harvard University Asia
     Center, Cambridge, Mass. & London, 2007, 550 pages.
     Link to an online introduction to the work:
     "Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan. Table of Contents."


Izumi Takeo: Paintings of Bamboo Flutes. A History
     and Genealogy of Shakuhachi Performance.
     Translated from Japanese by Philip Flavin.
     Tōhoku University Press, Sendai, 2016.


Joseph Jennes: History of the Catholic Church in Japan,
From its Beginnings to the Early Meiji Era (1549-1873).
     A Short Handbook. 1973.

Henry Johnson: The Shakuhachi. Roots and Routes.
     Published by Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2014.

Alice Harriet Jones: Mental Discipline and Musical Meaning.
     Doctoral of Musical Arts thesis, Graduate Center, City University of New York, 2015


Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716): Kaempfer's Japan: Tokugawa culture observed.
     Edited, translated, and annotated by Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 1999.

Elliot Kanshin Kallen: "History of the Komusō."
     Publ. online by The International Shakuhachi Society, 12/10 2017.
     Link to webpage:

K'ao Ku (Chinese periodical of archaeology) 1974, Vol. 1.
     K'ao Ku Publishing Co., Beijing, February 1974.

Donald Keene: Essays in Idleness. The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō.
     Columbia University Press, 1998.

Jay Keister: "The Shakuhachi as Spiritual Tool:
     A Japanese Buddhist Instrument in the West."
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2004).

Jay Keister: "Seeking Authentic Experience: Spirituality in the Western Appropriation of Asian Music."
     The World of Music, Vol. 47, No. 3, The Music of "Others" in the Western World (2005), pp. 35-53.

Kenneth P. Kirkwood: Renaissance in Japan:
     a cultural survey of the seventeenth century.
     Charles E. Tuttle, 1971.

Kishibe Shigeo: The Traditional Music of Japan.
     Kokusai Bunko Shinkokai, Tokyo, 1966.

Kitahara Ikuya, Masumoto Misao & Matsuda Akira:
     The Shakuhachi (The Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments).
     Ongakusha, Tokyo, 1990.

Kondō Ichitarō & Charles S. Terry: The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
     by Hokusai. Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1968.

Peter Francis Kornicki: The Book in Japan:
     A Cultural History from the Beginnings to the Nineteenth Century.
     E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1998.

Kenneth Kraft: Eloquent Zen: Daito and Early Japanese Zen.
     University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992, 1997.


Mette Laderriere: Danes in Japan 1868-1940: Aspects of Early Danish-Japanese Contacts.
     Akademisk Forlag, Coipenhagen, 1984.

Riley Kelly Lee: Blowing Zen: Aspects of Performance Practices
     of the Chikuho Ryu Honkyoku.
     Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of Hawai'i, 1986.

Riley Kelly Lee: 'FU HO U vs. DO RE MI. The Technology of Notation
     Systems and Implications of Change in the
     Shakuhachi Tradition of Japan.'
     In: Asian Music East and Southeast Asia, 19, 2,
     Spring, 1988/Summer, 1988, pp. 71-81.

Riley Kelly Lee: 'Shakuhachi honkyoku notation:
     Written sources in an oral tradition.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 18-35.

Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
     Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
     PhD thesis, University of Sidney, 1993.
     Available online at:

Laurence Lieberman: "Shakuhachi."
     The Hudson Review, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Winter, 1973-1974), pp. 653-654.

James Legge: The Texts of Taoism.
     Reprinted from Sacred Books of the East, vols. 39 and 40,
     Oxford, 1891. Julian Press, New York, 1961.

Olof G. Lidin: Tanegashima - The Arrival of Europe in Japan.
     Nordic Institue of Asian Studies Monograph Series, No. 90.
     NJAS Press, Copenhagen, 2002.
Link to online PDF file:

Gunnar Jinmei Linder: "About ... " (the Shakuhachi).
     Online internet article, last updated on Jan. 14, 2012.

Gunnar Jinmei Linder:
     Deconstructing Tradition in Japanese Music. A Study of Shakuhachi,
     Historical Authenticity and Transmission of Tradition.
     PhD dissertation, Department of Oriental Languages,
     Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012.

Gunnar Jinmei Linder: 'Shakuhachi.'
     Online article c/o the author's website. Link:

Dennis Eugene Lishka: Buddhist Wisdom and Its Expression as Art:
     The Dharma of the Zen Master Takuan.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976. Purchasable at:
     UMI Dissertation Services - Cat. no.: 7708798.

John Daido Loori: The True Dharma Eye.
     Zen Master Dōgen's Three Hundred Kōans.
     Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, 2005.

Lu K'uan Yü: The Secrets of Chinese Meditation.
     Rider & Company, London, 1964, 1975.


Machida Kashō: 'Development of the Shakuhachi.'
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     Donald Keene & Edward G. Seidensticker.
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Christian Theodore Mau: Situating the Myōan Kyōkai:
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     Download link:

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     Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
     Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at

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Patrick Geoffrey O'Neill: Japanese Names. A Comprehensive Index by Characters and Readings.
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     l'histoire et de la géographie du Japon suivi de
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     sectes bouddhistes, provinces, départements, mesures, etc.
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     Download URL:

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Lauren C. Redburn: A World of Flute Music: A Look at the Impact of Siku
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     M.A. thesis. California State University Long Beach, CA, May, 2014.

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     Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009.

Martin P. Regan: Concerto for shakuhachi and 21-string koto:
     A composition, analysis,
     and discussion of issues encountered in cross-cultural
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     University of Hawai'i, 2006.

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     Medical Humanities, Kochi Medical School,
     Kochi University, pp. 161−173, 2009.

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     two case studies of historical iconology, performance practice
     and their relation to avian respiration and song.
     Ph.D. Monash University. Faculty of Arts. School of Music – Conservatorium, 2009.
     Download from:

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Stanley Sadie, editor: The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians.
     First published in hardback edition in 1980.
     Reprinted 1995 in paperback edition.
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     on page 218: "Shakuhachi" - author(s) unknown.

Roberto Sallustio: Shakuhachi - Il suono dell'anima.
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Ronnie Nyogetsu Reishin Seldin & Barbara Lee Krooss:
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     5-CD CD set with "Suizen Booklet", 141 pages.
     Distributed by

Shakuhachi dokushū annai. "A Guide to Shakuhachi Self-study."
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     Archiv Zur Beschreibung Von Japan Und Dessen Neben- Und Schutzländern.
     Jezo Mit Den Südlichen Kurilen, Krafto, Kooraï Und Den Liukiu-Inseln,
     nach japanischen und europäischen Schriften und eigenen Beobachtungen.
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     Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan und dessen Neben- und Schutzlandern.
     2 vols. Leyden, 1852.

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold: Nippon.
     Nippon, Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan und dessen Neben - und Schutzländern
     nach japanischen und europäischen Schriften und eigenen Beobachtungen bearbeitet
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     Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile
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     A Study of Traditional Solo Music for the Japanese Vertical
     End-blown Flute - the Shakuhachi.
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     Neu hrsg. von Eduard Hintze.
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     Shakuhachi in the United States: Transcending Boundaries and Dichotomies.
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Henrik Hjort Sørensen - see Henrik H. Sorensen.


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     les funérailles suivies de détails sur la poudre Dosia,
     de la préface d'un livre de Confoutzée sur la piété filiale,
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     observed throughout the year at their court; and of the ceremonies customary
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     observations on the legal suicide of the Japanese, remarks on their poetry,
     an explanation of their mode of reckoning time, particulars
     respecting the Dosia powder, the preface of a work by Confoutzee on filial piety, &c. &c.
     Translated from the French by Frederic Shoberl, Ackermann, London, 1822.

Isaac Titsingh (M. Titsingh): Mémoires et anecdotes sur la dynastie régnante des Djogouns,
     Souverains du Japon, avec la description des fêtes et c´rémonies
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     leur manière de diviser l'année, etc; Ouvrage orné de Planches gravées et coloriées,
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Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Performing Arts of Japan
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Alison McQueen Tokita & David W. Hughes, editors: The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
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     pp. 103-129. Translated by Riley Kelly Lee.

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     Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (English language:

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     Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, Kyoto, 2009.

Wong Wah-Sang: 'The Music of Buddha Nature - Blowing Zen on the Shakuhachi.'
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     Vol. 4, No. 8, June 2014, pp. 64-80.
     Link to online PDF:



Yamada Shōji: 'The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery.'
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     Link to online PDF file:

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