About this Research Project
Realizations & Conclusions
Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.
Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends
To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?
1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
and the Temple Patron Household System
Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
- a Factual & Unbiased Chronology
Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
and the Realization of The Non-Dual
- Highlighted Quotations
A Select Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
Ideology-related Names, Terms & Concepts
Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Panorama:
• The West
The Source Collections
The Written Sources
Research Cases of Special Significance:
c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami
1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls
1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay
1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise
The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources
1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book
1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document
1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis
The Early Komusō-related Texts
- from c. 1640 to c. 1752
1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document
1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu
1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend
The Kyōto/Kansai Sources
1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise
The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources
1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678
1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji
1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
& Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence
1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples
1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship
1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
& Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
and Early Honkyoku History
1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"
1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
The Many Existing Different Versions
1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō
1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book
1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
- a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book
1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book
1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.
1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
and of the Practice of Religious Begging
1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
is Opened at Tōfuku-ji in Kyōto
Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
Source Examples - Commented Links:
c. 1875?: The Komusō zakki Source Collection
1892: Suzuki Jisuke alias Higuchi Taizan's
Shakuhachi shian Study Book
1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection
1896-1914: The Koji ruien Source Collection
1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
About Fuke-shū-related Matters
1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
1918/1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
Into Shakuhachi History
1931-32: The Tokugawa kinreikō
Prohibition Law Collection
1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen
1899/1910 ... Translations of Source Texts
in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
including the Internet/WWW
Profile / Bio / CV
1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu
Isshi Bunshu (alt. Monju), a most renowned Rinzai Zen abbot whose master was the great Rinzai Zen master Takuan Sōhō (1573-1645), lived from 1608 to 1645 (or 1646).
Isshi Bunshu - 1608-1645/46
Portrait preserved at the temple Hōjō-ji in Kameoka City, Kyōto Prefecture
Here is a scanning (thoroughly retouched) of a xerox copy of the original hand-scroll, supplied to me in 1985 by the Kōkoku Temple in Yura, Wakayama.
As with the Kaidō honsoku of 1628, Abbot Isshi's Letter to the komusō Sandō Mugetsu represents an equally important source
of 17th century Fuke Shakuhachi ideology.
Here follows (an attempt at) a preliminary English translation of the document, almost complete, as of Spring, 2013 (the paragraphing is mine).
Trust me: This text is definitely a major challenge!
Notes to the presentation of the Japanese text:
【?】 = missing or illegible kanji in the original manuscript.
【kanji】 = probable character inserted where a kanji is missing or illegible in the original manuscript.
(kanji) = notes added/inserted in the original manuscript in different writing style/hand.
* following a kanji = the preceding kanji was written with a non-standard or old version of the ideograph in the original manuscript by Isshi Bunshu.
【??????????? - 11 kanji missing】
... 於 ...
【?????? - 6 kanji missing】
- Opening paragraph – Worm-eaten - upper right corner of the scroll damaged by insects.
11 kanji missing.
1 kanji: “… at …” [Jap.: ni oite].
6 kanji missing.
1 kanji: ”… honor(able) …”[Jap.: ki].
”[As for] That [personal] name, [he] is called Sandō Mugetsu, the hermit.”
”[As for] That sect, [it] is called “K(y)omu Nature” [Jap.: K(y)omu Shizen].”
【?? - 1 or 2 kanji missing】
“I have inquired with a [1 kanji missing: ‘learned’?] person regarding the origin of [the]‘K(y)omu’.”
【? - 1 kanji missing】
“[I learned that:] In India there was a clever, old monk [1 kanji missing: ‘who was the’?] founder.”
“In China there was Fuke; [as for] my [own] country itself, how possibly could Hottō Kokushi accomplish as the originator of the congregation?”
“When Kokushi was in China, one after the other four K(y)omu persons joined him and, succesfully, came [back with Kokushi] to this country.”
“Later, the paths [lit.: 'branch veins'] of these honorary men separated into four, respectively [thus totalling 16], and - travelling in all directions -
wherever they came they brought relief to the Buddhist community."
“However, the ascetic practice [Jap.: shugyō] in present times is only poorly [lit.: ‘little’] observing the commandments; and that is so indeed.”
“When I examine those persons who are practicing [as k(y)omu], nine out of ten [of them] do not understand the original essence [lit.: ‘source’] of the sect’s instructions.”
“[Their] Lack of devotion makes [them into] but miserable persons underneath basket hats.”
“And so, hurrying in the East and hastening in the West, they simply wander absentmindedly [or, ‘in vain’] around people’s gates; and that is so indeed!
“Even though they ate the earthly remains of [Banzan] Hōshaku, they would certainly never change into the muscles [i.e.: the ‘logic’] of Fuke!”
“[As for] Persons with one shakuhachi, although [they are] equipped [with it], it is the ear that manages hearing - not the eye that manages hearing.”
【? - 1 kanji missing】
“The shakuhachi is made from a piece of bamboo with 3 joints [or, ‘nodes ‘, Jap.: mi-bushi] with a hollow cavity [cut out] inside of it.
Then, when the airstream can pass through [it], four and one holes [are drilled] on the front and back [respectively].”
“The ancients [lit.: ‘old people’] used a single pipe and produced [lit.: ‘intoned’] a single sound.
If there were not 5 pipes, it was difficult [i.e.: ‘impossible’] to intone [or, ‘tune’] the five notes.
Today’s people [lit.: present-day people] use 5 pipes and tune [the] 12 steps [or, ‘pitches’, i.e. the 12 semitones of the octave].”
“That expertise originated with the ancients.”
“Some oral traditions [call it] chiku-teki [alt.: take-bue - i.e.: ‘bamboo flute’]; some [call it] shakuhachi.
Some oral traditions [call it] gyoku-shō [i.e.: ‘jade flute’]; some [call it] dōshō [Chin.: t’ung-hsiao].
The names differ, [but] it is the same thing.”
After all, if one does not understand [or, ‘grasp’] the ‘Lofty Clarity of the Jade Tablet’ [or, ‘sceptre’ – Jap.: gyokkei gichō],
and the principles of [shakuhachi?] manufacture, and do not observe [lit.: ‘employs’] the Three Fundamental Tenets [lit.: ‘three joints’ -
Jap.: mi-bushi] of our school’s teaching [i.e.: that of Zen Buddhism] - that expresses the Three Poisons [or, ‘malices’] of Greed, Anger, and Ignorance.”
(Note added to the original manuscript in a different writing style:
”The five holes on the front and the back [respectively] [are] the collected [powers of] Eyes [or, ‘seeing’], Ears [or, ‘hearing’], Nose [or, ‘smelling’],
Tongue [or, ‘tasting’], and Body-Mind.”
[In the original manuscript an explanatory note has been added, in different writing:
“Discrimination between receiving ideas and perceiving colours?”]
“Shaku and Hachi expresses [or, ‘represents] the ‘right and wrong’ of the Eight Environments [determined by Karma].
[As for] the hollow passage way of the interior space, that is the Doctrine of Non-obstructed Universality [Jap.: enyō muge/mugai].”
“Blowing forth increasingly with one voice, that [then] immediately eliminates the Muddiness of the Three Poisons [Jap.: sandoku no mumyō]
and manifests [lit.: ‘makes’] the Precepts of the Three Buddhist Assemblies [Jap.: sanshū no jōkai].”
“Likewise, this is the same as the ‘Shōrin Flute Without Holes’ [Jap.: Shōrin mu-ku-teki].
Its sound [lit.: ‘voice’] equals that of Ling-shan’s [Jap.: Reizan, 1225-1325] ch’in with no strings [Jap.: kin, the class. Chinese zither] -
that music of all music no one ever encountered.
Even though Master Li-lao [Jap.: Rirō, no dates] excelled with his jade flute, he did not know that there existed [such a] fragrant medium [?]
of mysterious sound [Jap.: myōon hōkai].
However, a ‘good’ bamboo flute does not necessarily produce an austere sound.”
【6-7 kanji missing】,
“As I noted, saying before, hermit Sandō Mugetsu [6-7 kanji missing] - - - ,
You [lit.: ‘the hermit’] smile, and the lower part of the character for ‘deafness’ [is the character for ‘ear’?]; and that so indeed!
I [just] cannot help joking … [lit.: ‘I must say a joke’].”
“Priest Tung-shan [Jap.: Dōsan, 807-869, a Sōtō Zen monk] heard the recital of the ‘Five Ranks’ [Jap.: go-i];
he put together and established the family code [Jap.: ka-hō], explored and trifled with the Three Occult Music Pieces [Jap.: sangen (no) kyoku].”
[T.O.: go-i is very important in Sōtō Zen thought. Zengaku Jiten p. 345.]
“I doubt that the purity of the mountain dwelling hermit Jukushi’s [?, no dates] Four Dignified Manners [Jap.: i-gi] threatens the idolizers of Fu[ke] and Kaku[shin]?
[T.O.: i-gi is very important in Sōtō Zen thought. Zengaku Jiten p. 20: Practicing/walking, living, sitting, sleeping/lying.]
Usually, they do not read books, and here, because of their ignorance, they are not at all capable of performing administration.”
“Here, because of Human Selfishness there is little Divine Talent, and following short cuts does not bring about empathy [or, ‘compassion’? -
lit.: ‘being intimate with sadness’].
The Liberated Body [or, ‘person’] moves and rests with no restraint [lit.: ‘not unwillingly’].
How can it be, then, that they gather everywhere in crowds and engage in quarrels and fights?”
“Do not in any way obstruct the Authority of the Imperial Court [lit.: ‘the Precedence of the Imperial We’].
That corrupts the state of the world, and … [4 kanji awaiting a satisfying translation].
Thus, do not adore Honor and Profit, be cold towards Shameless Desire, and be in agreement with the Self-evident Principles.”
“Do not accumulate Wealth and Honor; do always practice Poverty and Lowliness.
Being at places, do not overdo resting your knees.
Being at places, do not exceed [with regard to] satisfying your mouth [i.e.: in terms of eating and drinking].
Do not refuse a human resting place offered as alms – accept [lit.: ‘receive’] it (‘with no repulsive word’?)
[T.O.: Here 2 specific kanji are somehow difficult to translate satisfyingly.]
Even though it is as such, exceedingly, almsgiving represents something disadvantegous.”
[T.O.: The exact meaning of this last sentence is somewhat unclear.]
“Our towns and fields are in full bloom [lit.: ‘are equal to smile’, i.e.: ‘are equal to prosperity’].
Wives and mothers-in-law engage in quarrels [lit.: ‘work hard on stones’].
[Be it] cold or hot, even though they cut their skin, they are not devoted to the coolness of hempen [summer] kimonos –
they do not esteem the slight warmth of embroidered silken.”
[T.O.: This paragraph certainly presents a challenge to the imaginative translator … ]
“The coming of winter accords with the Paper Garments of remote attendants.
The advent of summer accords with the renewal of the Buddhist layman’s Large Cloth [Jap.: ō-fu].”
[8+10 kanji - awaiting final and satisfying translation – the subject matter is, however, not specifically shakuhachi-related.]
【1 kanji missing: 少?】
”There is, however, to some extent [lit.: ‘a little’] a Zen addiction [lit.: ‘disease nature’] to being fond of alcoholic liquor [Jap.: sake, i.e.: ‘rice wine’]-
And, [as for] that misdeed the ancients said,
‘Alcoholic poison [i.e.: ‘getting drunk’], that sins against the emphasis on the essential commandments for the Mind [Jap.: kokoro/shin].’
For what reason should one not be moderate ... ?”
“Even if one celebrates a congratulatory cup [i.e. f.i.: ‘a toast’], although you pour it full, then:
By all means, one shall envision [lit.: ‘see’] the Realm of No Colors [Jap.: mu-shiki kai].”
[T.O.: The representative colour of the supreme Shingon Buddha Dainichi Nyorai, Skt.: Vairocana, is that of the colour white which is colourless,
yet possessing all colours of the spectrum.]
“The hermit [Jap.: anju] replies, saying:
‘The oxen thirstily drinks water – sometimes it turns into milk, at times it becomes poison.”
“Leading up - and concluding - with a joke! Again: What do You say?”
“Addressed to the hermit Sandō Mugetsu, who has become [or, ‘is’] a Komusō.
“Stated by Isshi Oshō.”
Translation by Torsten Olafsson, Denmark
Digitized version of Abbot Isshi's Letter
The study of old, original Japanese manuscripts does indeed represent a special challenge:
Japanese authors of bygone days often expressed themselves in quite archaic language and frequently used 'non-standard' ideographs (kanji) in their writings.
The actual meaning of such texts often appear to be quite obscure to present-day Japanese scholars and - so much more - to non-Japanese students of the language.
Hopefully, the transcription presented here may be helpful in the further study of the document:
"To the hermit Sandō Mugetsu"