「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark



Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus

About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions

The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Highlighted Illustrations

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera

The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama

 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page

Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern

ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550

1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto

1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise


     c. 1550 to c. 1628?

The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources

1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters

1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō

1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750

1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?

1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?

c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions

1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts

The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'

Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives

1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY


1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia

1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"

Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.

1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws


     1945 ...

1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto

1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"

Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"

The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan

3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...

1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages

Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators

Literature / References


Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki and Early 'Honkyoku' History

This uniquely important document contains a list of 34 shakuhachi music piece titles, the earliest known of its kind.



Dated Kyōhō 17 - 1732 in the document itself.

It is very significant to notice that the term 'Fuke-shū:', 普化宗, "Fuke Sect", does not appear in the document's text, at all!

Name of alleged author, given in the middle of the text, between the introduction and the list of music titles:
Fusō Sanjin Kakushin, 扶桑散人覚心, The Japanese "Useless" Kakushin.
That piece of information ought of course be taken with more than just a grain of salt.

According to the comprehensive shakuhachi website, edited and webmastered by Katurayama Genkai, the Shakuhachi denrai-ki was related with and possibly produced by the "twin temples" Reihō-ji and Ichigetsu-ji in Edo.

The complete text of the Shakuhachi denraiki is reproduced in Komusō zakki, 虚無僧雑記, an anthology of Edo Period shakuhachi-related texts and pictures that was originally compiled/authored by Okumura Noriyoshi, 奥村得義, who lived from 1793 to 1862.

In 1843-44 (Tenpō 14-15), the scholar and writer Kodera Gyokuchō, 小寺玉晁, 1800-1878 - a retainer of the Owari clan, Nagoya - borrowed and copied the material, then annotated and prepared the work for eventual publication.

However, according to the shakuhachi historian Yatō Osamu, 矢頭治, Komusō zakki may first have been presented in final print as late as in 1871, or later.
Link: Komusō zakki

Only recently, a reprint of the book was re-published by the bookstore Mytown in Nagoya, Japan

Okumura Yoshinori (compiler) & Kodera Gyokuchō (editor):
Komusō zakki, 虚無僧雑記, "Komusō Note Book",
an anthology of Edo Period shakuhachi-related texts and pictures that was originally compiled/authored by Okumura Noriyoshi, 奥村得義, who lived from 1793 to 1862.

The shakuhachi music piece title list is reprinted in Nakatsuka 1979, pp. 548-549.

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the 'Shakuhachi denraiki'.
Source: Nakatsuka 1979, pp. 548-549.

The complete Shakuhachi denrai-ki as reproduced in a reprint of the Komusō zakki, published by the book store Mytown in Nagoya, Japan

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the 'Shakuhachi denraiki'.
Source: 'Komusō zakki', 虚無僧雑記, possibly quite late Edo Period.


'Mukaiji', 'Kokū' & 'Kyorei' are, of course well known 'honkyoku' titles - where as 'Sugo[mori]' could be 'Tsuru no sugomori', although we shall never know for sure.

All the remaining titles are really obscure - difficult to translate and make much sense of today. We have no idea of ascertaining whether the music represented with these titles ever existed as the titles has not been mentioned nor corroborated in any other surviving source document.

Do note that 'kana' characters appearing in brackets are reading suggestions offered by Katurayama Genkai on the above mentioned webpage.

  1: 霧海箎
       Mukaiji - Flute of the Misty Sea

  2: 虚空
       Kokū - Non-dual Space (lit.: Empty Sky)

  3: 虚霊
       Kyorei - Non-dual Spirit (lit.: Empty Spirit)

  4: 巣籠
       Sugo[mori] - Nesting; Resting in the Nest

  5: 律虚霊
       Ritsu Kyorei - Ritsu Scale Kyorei

  6: 鈴虚空
       Rin/Rei Kokū - Bell of Non-dual Space

'Kyorei' pieces, "Non-dual Spirit pieces":

  7: 雲響虚霊
       Unkyō Kyorei - Sound of the Cloud(s) Kyorei

  8: 窪訓虚霊
       A-kin/A-kun Kyorei - Reading/Explaining The Hollow (Non-duality),
      or the sound/letter 'A' Kyorei

  9: 聲廣(声広) 虚霊
       Shōkō/Seikō Kyorei - Spreading out of the Voice Kyorei

10: 葭岡虚霊
       Kakō Kyorei - Reed Hill Kyorei, or Yoshioka Kyorei (place name?)

11: 遏雲虚霊(アツウン)
       Atsu-un Kyorei - Stop the Cloud Kyorei

12: 虹啜虚霊(コウセツ、コウテツ)
       Kō-setsu Kyorei - Sipping the Rainbow Kyorei

13: 翰敬虚霊(カンケイ、ガンキョウ)
       Kankei/Kankyō Kyorei - Writing Brush Reverence Kyorei

14: 落梅虚霊(ラクバイ)
       Raku-bai Kyorei - Fallen Plum Blossom Kyorei

15: 緩端虚霊(カンタン)
       Kantan Kyorei - "Moderate Origin" Kyorei?

16: 遶梁虚霊(ジョウリョウ)
       Jōryō Kyorei - "Surrounding the Bridge Beam" Kyorei?

'Renbo' pieces, "Love and Affection" pieces:

17: 意律戀慕(恋慕)
       I-ritsu Renbo - Thought+Rule Renbo

18: 武田戀慕(恋慕)
       Takeda Renbo - Takeda Renbo

19: 風情戀慕(恋慕)
       Fūjō Renbo - Elegance Renbo

20: 鳴渡戀慕(恋慕)
       Mei-to Renbo - Chirp Delivery Renbo

21: 善也戀慕(恋慕)
       Zen-ya Renbo - Zen-ya Renbo

22: 和霧戀慕(恋慕)
       Wa-mu Renbo - Peaceful Mist Renbo

23: 吟静戀慕(恋慕)
       Ginsei Renbo - Recital Stillness Renbo

24: 縅朧戀慕(恋慕)(イロウ)
       I-rō Renbo - "Frightening Haziness"? Renbo

25: 調音戀慕(恋慕)
       Chō-on Renbo - Pitch+Sound Renbo

26: 諍達戀慕(恋慕)(静達、ショウタツ?)
       Shōtatsu Renbo - "Dispute+Friend" Renbo or "Stillness+Friend" Renbo

27: 了祖戀慕(恋慕)
       Ryō-so Renbo - Understanding+Forefather Renbo

28: 志道戀慕(恋慕)
       Shidō Renbo - The Way of Intention Renbo

29: 情緩戀慕(恋慕)(ジョウカン)
       Jōkan Renbo - Moderation of Compassion Renbo

30: 得秀戀慕(恋慕)
       U-jū Renbo - Acquire Superlativeness Renbo

31: 遊戯戀慕(恋慕)
       Yūgi Renbo - Game/Sports Renbo

32: 總譜(総譜)戀慕(恋慕)(ソウフ、スフ)
       Sōfu/Sofu Renbo - "Collected Music"? Renbo

33: 薄暮盤濤(盤涛)
       Haku-bo Bantō - Twilight Dish+Wave

34: 霊法流
       Reihō/Reipō Ryū/Nagare - Spirit Law Manner,
      i.e. "In the Manner of the Spirit Dharma"?

researched by the honourable late Prof. Tsukitani Tsuneko, 月渓恒子 (d. 2010).

The Tsukitani Tsuneko shakuhachi kyoku list page 62, top

The Tsukitani Tsuneko shakuhachi kyoku list page 62, bottom

Tsukitani Tsuneko's presentation of surviving shakuhachi
solo music title sources (2000, page 62].
As it can be seen, the Shakuhachi denraiki is the very first and oldest on the list,
number 1 at the top right.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2000.

To the front page To the top