Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax


To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names


Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview






Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page






Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1628?



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City


1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō


1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū


1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750



1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers


c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?


c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts


The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'







Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection



From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia



1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism



1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"


Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.



1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto


1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"



Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"



The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan







3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages


Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators







Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


ca. 630-645: Did the Imperial Music Master
     Lü Ts'ai really Invent the "Chinese Shakuhachi"?

No, we know of no reliable proof that Lü Ts'ai, 606-665, specifically invented and manufactured any "flute" with actual finger holes such as a "Chinese shakuhachi"!

Although it is very popular to credit the early T'ang Dynasty music master Lü Ts'ai/Lü Cai,
呂才, active ca. 627-649, with the "invention" of the "Chinese shakuhachi", the Chinese historical source being referred to, the 'Chiu T'ang Shu', 旧唐書, "Old Book of T'ang", Chuàn/Juàn/Vol. 79, dated 945, certainly only relates the term 'shakuhachi', Chinese: 'chi'h-pa', 尺八, to the set of twelve Chinese pitch pipes: 'lü-kuan', 律管, or: 'shi-er lü-lü', 十二律呂, that were in fact in existence and use at least as early as during the Former Han Dynasty, 202 BCE to 9 CE – not to a set of "12 shakuhachi flutes of differing length".

Set of 12 Chinese pitch pipes dated a. 180 BCE found at a famous, very significant burial site at Ma-wang-tui near Ch'ang-sha in Hunan Province, China.

Set of 12 Chinese pitch pipes dated a. 180 BCE found at a famous, very significant burial site
at Ma-wang-tui, No. 3 Tomb, near Ch'ang-sha in Hunan Province, China.
Picture from a special edition of the archaeological magazine Wen Wu, September, 1972.

It should be noted that the 12 pitch pipes shown above were possibly manufactured
to be part of a special Chinese Han Period type of mouth organ, namely the 'yu', .


Quotation from the "Lü Ts'ai Tradition" passage in the Old T'ang Dynasty History Book, Chuàn/Juàn/Vol. 79, dated 945 CE:

「侍中王珪,魏徴又盛稱才學術之妙,徴日「才能爲尺十二枚,『尺八』長短不同,各應律管,無不諧韻」太宗即徴才,令直弘文館。」

Link to the relevant Chinese source texts in question: https://blog.goo.ne.jp/james_mac/e/c9b08b1ead64f23aaba30489a38fd90f



Lü Ts'ai Shakuhachi legend in one version of the 'T'ang-shu'

One T'ang-shu edition in the possession of the Museum of Hangzhou Local Chronicles/Hangzhou Local History Museum, China.

Bamboo pitch pipe dimensions in the T'ang-shu

Dimensions of the bamboo pitch pipes

Court music instruments list

Names of T'ang court musical instruments listed in the T'ang-shu

Clay figurines of possible T'ang Dynasty musicians

Clay figurines of possibly Chinese T'ang Dynasty musicians, the one to the left seemingly
a 'xiao'/Chinese 'shakuhachi' player, the one to the right playing a horizontal stringed zither


Source: https://hznews.hangzhou.com.cn/wghz/content/2019-10/11/content_7282303_0.htm



Here is the Lü Ts'ai shakuhachi chapter presented by the Chinese WikiSource.org website:

呂才

呂才,博州清平人也。

少好學,善陰陽方伎之書。

貞觀三年,太宗令祖孝孫增損樂章,孝孫乃與明音律人王長通、白明達遞相長短。

太宗令侍臣更訪能者,中書令溫彥博奏才聰明多能,眼所未見,耳所未聞,一聞一見,皆達其妙,尤長於聲樂,請令考之。

侍中王珪、魏徵又盛稱才學術之妙,徵曰:

「才能為尺十二枚,尺八長短不同,各應律管,無不諧韻。」

太宗即徵才,令直引文館。

太宗嘗覽周武帝所撰《三局象經》,不曉其旨。

太子洗馬蔡允恭年少時嘗為此戲,太宗召問,亦廢而不通,乃召才使問焉。

才尋繹一宿,便能作圖解釋,允恭覽之,依然記其舊法,與才正同,由是才遂知名。

累遷太常博士。

太宗以陰陽書近代以來漸致訛偽,穿鑿既甚,拘忌亦多。

遂命才與學者十餘人共加刊正,削其淺俗,存其可用者。

勒成五十三卷,並舊書四十七卷,十五年書成,詔頒行之。

才多以典故質正其理,雖為術者所短,然頗合經義,今略載其數篇。


Source: https://zh.m.wikisource.org/zh-hant/%E8%88%8A%E5%94%90%E6%9B%B8/%E5%8D%B779


The Chinese website Baike.com/wikiid presents this picture of Lü Ts'ai, 606-665, on a biography webpage about him:

Court music instruments list

The music master Lü Ts'ai, 606-665 - probably a quite contemporary picture ...


Source: https://www.baike.com/wikiid/8126344071260900980?prd=result_list&view_id=lhgazlf20ww00


Japanese musicologist Akedo Shin'ya, 明土真也, has presented this interesting conclusion of his regarding Lü Ts'ai's pitch pipes - link to PDF below:

" - - - It has thus far widely been understood that the shakuhachi was invented by LU Cai ( 呂才 ; circa 600−665)of the Tang( )Dynasty.

Therefore, the measurement of the instruments of both the Hōryū-ji Temple and the Shōsō−in was long considered to have been based on Tang-xiao-chi唐小尺)measurement, even though some of them at the Shōsō-in do not match it. - - - "

Read more here - source: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ongakugaku/59/1/59_KJ00009557381/_pdf


This web page may be further elaborated in the future ...



To the front page To the top