F The "Zen Shakuhachi" <I>Historical Evidence</I> Research Web Pages - by Danish/Icelandic Musician, Music Editor & Japanologist Torsten Olafsson


「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark



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Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus

About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions

The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Highlighted Illustrations

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera

The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama

 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page

Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern

ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550

1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto

1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise


     c. 1550 to c. 1628?

The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources

1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters

1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō

1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750

1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?

1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?

c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions

1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts

The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'

Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives

1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY


1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia

1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"

Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Juzan a.o.

1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws


     1945 ...

1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto

1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"

Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"

The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan

3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...

1945 ... : Some Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages

Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators

Literature / References


Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

Wave pattern

Wave - or particle?

Japanese Zen sand garden

Detail of Zen sand garden
at Daisen-in, Daitoku-ji, Kyōto
'Standing waves' ...
Early 16th century
Photo: T.O.


List of references for all the research web pages

The bibliography is being continuously updated.

'Kanji' & 'kana' for Japanese publication titles will be added the soonest possible.


Carl Abbott: Blowing Zen. Original edition.
     Center for Taoist Thought and Fellowship, 1992.

Carl Abbott: Blowing Zen - One Breath, One Mind.
     Revised expanded edition; includes Blowing Zen II.
     Center for Taoist Thought and Fellowship, 2012.

Mikael S. Adolphson: The Gates of Power: Monks, Courtiers,
     and Warriors in Premodern Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2000.

Akedo Shin-ya: 'Hōryū-ji to Shōsōin no shakuhachi no onritsu.'
     "The Temperaments of the Shakuhachi Pipes Owned by the Hōryū-ji."
     Temple and the Shōsōin Repository."
     The Musicological Society of Japan. NII-Electronic Library Service PDF file,
     2013. 15 pages. Link: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ongakugaku/59/1/59_KJ00009557381/_pdf.

Peter Judd Arnesen: The Medieval Japanese Daimyo.
     Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1979

Sonja Arntzen, translator: Ikkyū and the Crazy cloud anthology,
     a Zen poet of Medieval Japan. Foreword by Shūichi Katō.
     University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1986.

Asai Ryōi: Ukiyo monogatari, 1661 or 1665.
     Printed in 'Tokugawa bungei ruiju', Vol. 2, pp. 333-388.
     "Collection of Tokugawa Literary Art".
     Edited and published by Kokusho kankōkai, Tokyo, 1916.
     Link: http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/1883227?itemId=info%3Andljp%2Fpid%2F1883227&__lang=en      Online PDF frames 174-202.

Asakura Haruhiko, editor: Jinrin kinmō zu-i, originally published in 1690
     by Makieshi Genzaburō & Atsuo Masamune.
     Reprinted edition by Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1990 & 1994.

James H. Austín: Zen and the Brain:
     Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness.
     MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1998.


Helen Josephine Baroni: Ōbaku Zen. The Emergence of the Third
     Sect of Zen in Tokugawa Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2000.

Helen Josephine Baroni: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism.
     The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 2002.

George M. Beckman: The Making of the Meiji Restoration.
     The Oligarchs and the Constitutional Development of Japan, 1868-1891.
     University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1957.

Robert Neelly Bellah: Tokugawa religion: The cultural roots of modern Japan.
     Free Press, 1985.

Donald Paul Berger: 'The Shakuhachi and the Kinko Ryū Notation.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn, pp. 32-72.
     Texas University Press, 1969.

Donald Paul Berger & David W. Hughes: "Shakuhachi".
     Pages 532 to 534 in: S. Stanley & J. Tyrrell (editors):
     The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Vol. 9: "Iacobus to Kerman: Japan."
     Macmillan Publishers, London, 2001.

Bob Berlin-Grous & Monty H. Levenson: The Sound of Bamboo:
     Blowing Zen & The Spirit of Shakuhachi.
     Tai Hei shakuhachi, Willits, CA, USA, 2019.

Nancy Moore Bess: Bamboo in Japan.
     Kodansha Publishing, Tokyo, 2001.

Dr. Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya: "Dhyana (Meditation): Theory and Practice."
     Publ. online in 2019 on https://dramartyakumarbhattacharya.wordpress.com.
     Link URL: https://dramartyakumarbhattacharya.wordpress.com/2019/05/02/dhyana-meditation-theory-and-practice/

Steen Bille: Corvetten Galathea's Reise omkring Jorden 1845, 46 og 47. Anden Deel,
     Forlagt af Universitetsboghandler C. A. Reítzel,
     Kjöbenhavn, 1850.

Martina Binnig: Die Honkyoku in der Traditionslinie von Itchōken.
     Zum Repertoire des Shakuhachi-Tempels in Fukuoka/Japan.
     Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln. Musikwissenschaft (M.A.)
     Masterarbeit (M.A.) dated and submitted September 28, 2017.

Karen E. Bjerre: 'The Denmark-Japan Society's First 50 Years.'
     In the 50th anniversary book Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008,
     Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel: 'Snapshot: Syakuhati "Walking on its own"'.
     The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Vol. 7, pp. 707-709.
     Publ. by Routledge, 2002.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel:; A Shakuhachi Odyssey. The Single Tone:
     A Personal Journey into Shakuhachi Music.

Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Printed Matter Press, Tokyo, 1986, 2008.
     Available at www.shakuhachi.com.

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 1: General Introduction.
     From the Upanishads to Huineng. The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1960.

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 4: Mumonkan.
     The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1966, 1974.

Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby, Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl, editors.
     50th anniversay book published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Jørn Borup: Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Myōshinji, a living religion.
     Numen Book Series, Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2008.

C.R. Boxer: The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650.
     Carcarnet Press Limited, Manchester, 1993.
     First published in 1951 by The University of
     California Press & the Cambridge University Press.

William Bramsen: Japanese Chronological Tables.
     Printed at the "Seishi Bunsha" office, Tokyo, 1880.

Christopher Brickell, editor: Encyclopedia of Garden Plants:
     The American HorticulturalSociety.
     Macmillan, New York, 1990.

Christopher Brickell, editor-in-chief: The Royal Horticultural Society
     A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Dorling Kindersley,
     London, New York, Stuttgart, Moscow, 1996.

John S. Brownlee: Japanese Historians and the National Myths, 1600-1945.
     The Age of the Gods and Emperor Jinmu.
     UBC Press, Vancouver & University of Tokyo Press, 1997.

David D. Buck: "Three Han Dynasty Tombs at Ma-Wang-Tui."
     In: World Archaeology, Vol. 7, No. 1, Burial (Jun., 1975),
     pp. 30-45. Published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd.


John Cage: Silence - Lectures and Writings.
     Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, Connecticutt, 1961, 1971.

Schuyler van R. Cammann: 'Types of Symbols in Chinese Art.'
     In: The American Anthropologist, 'Studies in Chinese Thought',
     Vol. 55, No. 55, Part 2, 1953.

Edmund Capon and William MacQuitty: Princess of Jade.
     Cardinal/Sphere Book, London, 1973.

Steven D. Carter: 'Chats with the Master: Selections from "Kenzai zōdan".'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 295-347.

Steven Casano: "From Fuke Shuu to Uduboo: The Transnational Flow of the Shakuhachi to the West."
     In: The World of Music, Vol. 47, No. 3,
     The Music of "Others" in the Western World (2005), pp. 17-33.

Wing-tsit Chan: The Platform Scripture. The Basic Classic of Zen Buddhism.
     St. John's University Press, New York, 1963, 1975.

Cheng Te-k'un: 'Yin-Yang Wu-hsing and Han Art'.
     In: Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 20, 1-2, 1957.

Michael Church, editor: The Other Classical Musics, Fifteen Great Traditions.
     Boydell Press/Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England, 2016.
     Chapter 3 on pages 74-103: "Japan", by David W. Hughes.
     On pages 84-87: "The shakuhachi and its music."

Hubert S.J. Cieslik: 'The Great Martyrdom in Edo, 1623.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica X, 1954, pp. 1-44.
     Link to online PDF file: http://pweb.cc.sophia.ac.jp/britto/xavier/cieslik/cie_greatmartyrdom.pdf

Jonathan Clements: Christ's Samurai: The True Story of the Shimabara Rebellion.
     Published by Robinson, Lonbdon, 2016.

Martin Collcutt: Five Mountains. The Rinzai Zen Monastic Institution
     in Medieval Japan.
     Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London, 1981.

Michael S.J. Cooper: They Came to Japan. An Anthology of European Reports
     on Japan, 1543-1640.
     University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1965.

Jean Crasset: The History of the Church of Japan.
     Written originally in French by Monsieur L'Abbe de T.
     and now translated into English by N.N. 2 volumes, 2010.
     Originally published in 1705-1707.

Peter Crossley-Holland: 'Non-Western Music.'
     In: The Pelican History of Music I: Ancient Forms to Polyphony: Japan.
     Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, 1975, pp. 60-69.


Peter N. Dale: The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness.
     First publ. by Croom Helm Ltd., 1986.
     Reprinted by Routledge, London, 1988.

Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008. 50th anniversary celebration book.
     Edited by Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby,
     Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl.
     Published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Kiku Day: 'Place and Locality in Fuke-Style Shakuhachi: The Case of Nezasa-ha Kinpūryū.'
     Chapter 13 in: Presence Through Sound: Music and Place in East Asia.
     Edited By Keith Howard & Catherine Ingram.
     Farnham: Ashgate, Routledge, 2020.

Kiku Day: Remembrance of Things Past: Creating a repertoire
     for the archaic jinashi shakuhachi.
     PhD from SOAS, University of London, 2010.

Kiku Day: 'Takemitsu Tōru's November Steps: Bringing 'East' and 'West'
     together or Auto-Exoticism?'
     In: Exploring East Asia: Selected Conference Papers,
     Durham East Asian Papers 19, pp. 62-79, Durham, 2005.

Kiku Day: 'The Changes in the Construction of the Jinashi Shakuhachi
     in the late 20th and early 21st Century.'
     In: European Shakuhachi Society Journal, July 1, 2011.

Kiku Day: 'The Effect of Meiji Government Policy on Traditional
     Japanese Music: The case of the shakuhachi.'
     In: 'Nineteenth Century Music Review', Cambridge,
     Volume 10, Issue 02, pp. 265-292,
     Cambridge University Press, December 2013.
     Link to online PDF file: http://www.kikuday.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/NCMR_MeijiEffectShakuhachi.pdf

Kiku Day: "Zen Buddhism and Music: Spiritual Shakuhachi Tours to Japan."
     Chapter 147 in: The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities,
     Practices and Politics. Edited by Stanley D. Brunn.
     New York: Springer Science + Business Media B.V, 2013.

Max Deeg: 'Komusō and "Shakuhachi Zen". From Historical Legitimation
     to the Spiritualisation of a Buddhist denomination in the Edo Period.'
     In: 'Japanese Religions', Vol. 32 (1 & 2): pp. 7-38, 2007.

Bruno Deschênes: 'B Deschenes: Shakuhachi a Reinvented Tradition.'
     English summary of the author's book in French,
     "Le Shakuhachi Japonais", Paris, 2017.
     Link to online PDF version:

Bruno Deschênes: "Japanese Traditional Instrumental Music. An overview of solo and ensemble development."
     Web article, link: http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/japan.htm#shakuhachi

Bruno Deschênes: Le shakuhachi japonais. Une tradition réinventée.
     Editions L'Harmattan, Paris, 2017.

Bruno Deschênes: 'The Interest of Westerners in Non-Western Music.'
     In: World of Music-London Then Berlin-, January 1, 2005.

Sebastian Dobson: Unter den Augen des Preussen-Adlers, Lithographien, Zeichnungen und Photographien
     der Teilnehmer der Eulenburg-Expedition in Japan, 1860-61,
     Under eagle eyes, lithographs, drawings & photographs from the Prussian expedition to Japan, 1860-61,
     Sebastian Dobson; Sven Saaler, 1968-; Deutsche Gesellschaft fü:r Natur- und Vö:lkerkunde Ostasiens, 2012

John Dougill: In Search of Japan's Hidden Christians.
     A Story of Suppression, Secrecy and Survival.
     Tuttle Publishing, 2012, 2015.

Heinrich Dumoulin: A History of Zen Buddhism.
     Pantheon Books, New York, 1963.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 1: India & China.
     Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
     World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 2: Japan.
     Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
     World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.


George Elison & Bardwell L. Smith, editors:
     Warlords, Artists, and Commoners.
     Japan in the Sixteenth Century.      University Press of Hawaii, 1981.

Sir Charles Elliot: Japanese Buddhism. London, 1935.
     3rd impression, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1964.

Shusaku Endo / Endō Shūsaku: Silence.
     Original Japanese novel published in 1966.
     Peter Owen Publishers, London, 2003, 2007 & 2009.
     English translation first published in 1969
     by Sophia University Press. Tokyo,
     Copyright © by William Johnston, 1969.
     Movie by Martin Cors´se published in 2016.


David Farrelly: The Book of Bamboo.
     Sierra Club Books, San Fransisco, 1984.

Louis Frédéric: Japan Encyclopedia.
     Harvard University Press, 2005.

Ingrid Fritsch: Die Solo-Honkyoku der Tozan-Schule: Musik für
     Shakuhachi zwischen Tradition und Moderne Japans.
     In: Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Vol. 4,
     Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1979.

Ronald H. Fritze: Invented Knowledge. False History, Fake Science and Pseudo-religions.
     Reaktion Books, London, 2009.

Fujii Joji: Edo jidai no o-fure.
     "Public Proclamations in Edo Period Japan."
     Yamakawa Shuppansha, Tokyo, 2013.

Fuke kyōkai Editorial Board: Shakuhachi dokushū annai.
     "Guide to Shakuhachi Self Study."
     Kokureidō Shoten, Tokyo, 1915 (Taishō 4)

Fung Yu-lan: A Short History of Chinese Philosophy.
     The Free Press, New York & Collier-MacMillan Limited,
     London, 1948, 1968.


Gaishikyoku, editors (Bureau of Un-official History)):
     Meiji yonen fukoku zenshû jû Meiji shinbi.
     Publ. by Kitabatake Mohei, Tokyo, 1871.

Robert Garfias: Music of a Thousand Autumns.
     The Tōgaku Style of Japanese Court Music.
     University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975.

Gerald Groemer: Street Performers and Society in Urban Japan, 1600-1900:
     The Beggar's Gift.
     Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia, January 2016.

Robert Grous - see Bob Berlin-Grous.

R.H. van Gulik: Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute.
     Sophia University, Tokyo, and The Charles E. Tuttle Company,
     Rutland, Tokyo, 1941, 1969.

Gunsho ruijū, Vol. 28. First published in 1733 by Hanawa Hokiichi.
     Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1933.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Die Shakuhachi der Kinko-Schule.
     In the series 'Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Band 5.
     Bärenreiter - Kassel, Basel, London, 1983.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Shakuhachi. Aspects of History, Practice and
     Teaching. PhD thesis, Wesleyan University, USA, 1974.

Andreas Gutzwiller: "The Shakuhachi of the Fuke-Sect: Instrument of Zen."
     In: The World of Music Vol. 26, No. 3, Sacred Music II (1984), pp. 53-65 (13 pages)      Published by: VWB - Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.

Andreas Gutzwiller & Gerald Bennett: 'The world of a single sound:
     basic structure of the music of the japanese flute shakuhachi.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 36-60.


Eta Harich-Schneider: A History of Japanese Music.
     Oxford University Press, London, 1973.

Eta Harich-Schneider: The Rhythmical Patterns in Gagaku and Bugaku.
     E.J. Bill, 1954.

William Harmless: Mystics.
     Oxford University Press, 2008.

Peter Haskel: Bankei Zen. Translations from the Record of Bankei.
     Edited by Yoshito Hakeda.
     Grove Press, Inc. New York, 1984.

Hayashi Kenzō: Shōsōin gakki no kenkyū.
     Kazama Shobō, Tōkyō, 1964.

Hayashi Nozomu & Peter Francis Kornicki: Early Japanese books in Cambridge University Library.
     Cambridge University Press Repr., Cambridge, 1991.

Carolyn Martha Haynes: Parody in the maikyōgen
     and the monogurui kyōgen. Ph.D. thesis.
     Cornell University, USA, 1988.
     Available online at https://secure.umi.com
     Cat. no. AAT 8804579.

Bhikshuni Heng Ch'i, trsl.: The Shurangama Sutra, Vol. III.
     The Buddhist Text Translation Company,
     San Francisco, California, 1980.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in der Kunst des Bogenschiessens.
     Weller, Konstanz, 1948; Barth, München-Planegg, 1951.
     Published in English in 1953. Published in Japanese in 1955.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in the Art of Archery.
     United States, 1953.
     Originally published in German in 1948.

Hirai Tomio: Psychophysiology of Zen
     Igaku Shoin, Tokyo, 1978.

Hirai Tomio: Zen and the Mind. Scientific Approach to Zen Practice.
     Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo, 1978.

Hisamatsu Shin'ichi: Zen and the Fine Arts.
     Kodansha International Ltd.,
     Tokyo, New York & San Fransisco, 1971.

Lewis Hodous and William E. Soothill: A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms:
     with Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index.
     Routledge, 1937, 1970, 1977, 2003.

Frank Hoff: Song, Dance and Storytelling: Aspects of the
     Performing Arts in Japan.
     Cornell East Asia Series Number 15, 1978.

Hori Ichirō/Ichiro Hori: 'On the Concept of Hijiri (Holy Man).'
     In: Numen 5, 2 (April), pp. 128-160; Numen 5, 3 (September), pp. 199-232, 1958.

Victor Sōgen Hori: Zen Sand. The Book of Capping Phrases
     for Kōan Practice.
     Compiled, translated, and annotated by Victor Sōgen Hori.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2003.

Hosaka Hiro'oki: 'Jūhasseiki ni okeru komusō no mibun keisei.'
     Buraku mondai kenkyō no. 105, pp. 46-67, Kyoto, 1990.

Hosaka Hiro'oki: 'Jūshichi seiki ni okeru komusō no seisei: boroboro,
     komosō to no idō to 'kou' kōi no arikata.'
     Printed in: Mibunteki shūen.
     Publ. by Buraku mondai kenkyō shuppan-bu,
     pp. 161-216, Kyoto, 1994.

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     Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring, 1985), pp. 69-96.

Gregg W. Howard: 'Musico-religious implications of some
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     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 95-101.

David W. Hughes: "Japan."
In: Michael Church, editor: The Other Classical Musics: Fifteen Great Traditions.
     Boydell Press/Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England, 2016.
     Chapter 3, pp. 74-103; notes pp. 363-64.
     On pages 84-87: "The shakuhachi and its music."

Nam-lin Hur: Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan:
     Buddhism, Anti-Christianity, and the Danka System.
     Harvard East Asian Monographs 282, Harvard University Asia
     Center, Cambridge, Mass. & London, 2007, 550 pages.
     Link to an online introduction to the work:
     "Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan. Table of Contents."


Ide Yukio: 'Chūse shakuhachi tsuikō'.
     In: Research reports of the Kōchi University. Humanities.
     Vol. 41, 1-10, Kōchi, 1992-12-27.

Igarashi Bunzō: 'Hottō Kokushi no denki to densetsu ni tsuite.'
     In the shakuhachi periodical 'Ichi-on jō-butsu 8'
     (November), pp. 66-83, Tōkyō, 1984.

Iizuka Erihito: 'Meiji ikō no Myōan-ji no shiryō shōkai.'
     "Materials about the Meian Temple since the Meiji Era."
     In: Bulletin of Culture Informatics, Sugiyama Jogakuen University,
     Nagoya, Volume 14, pp. 139-151.
     Link: https://lib.sugiyama-u.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=2110&item_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=21

Ikeda Hiroshi & Kitahara Yasuo, researchers & editors:
     Ōkura Toraakira-bon kyōgenshū no kenkyū,
     "A Study of the Ōkura; toraakira-bon kyōgenshū."
     Vol. 2. Hyōgensha, Tokyo, 1973. 3 volumes.
     Original work published in Kyoto, 1642.

Ikeda Juzan shū: Taizan-fu shūi. Tokyo, 1985.

Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū.
     Facsimile of a late 15th century manuscript.
     Ed. & publ. by Okumura Jūbei, Kyoto, 1966.

Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū, Kyōunshishū, Jikaishū.
     Rev. & annotated by Nakamura Tamaki.
     Gendai shichōsha, Tokyo, 1976.

Ikumi Kaminishi: Explaining pictures:
     Buddhist propaganda and etoki storytelling in Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2006.

Imaeda Aishin: Zenshū no rekishi.
     Shibundō, Tokyo, 1962.

Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai, editor:
     Shakuhachi dokushū annai. "A Guide to Shakuhachi Self-study."
     Edited by Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai.
     Publ. by Kokureidō shoten, Tokyo, 1915.

Inada Hideo: 'Mai-kyōgen oboegaki.' "Dance-kyōgen Notes."
     Yamaguchi Prefectural University International Culture Department
     Bulletin of the Faculty of International Studies
     No. 3, 1997, pp. 65-74.

Inagaki Ihaku, Izui Seizan & Takahashi Ryochiku, editors:
     Myōan sanjūnana-sei Tanikita Muchiku-shū.
     Taizan-fu shūi. Tanikita Renzō, Kyoto, 1981.

Inoura Yoshinobu & Kawatake Toshio: The Traditional Theatre of Japan.
     Tokyo, 1981.

Ishizaki Yūshi (1768-1846): Nagasaki meisho zue.
     "Famous Places in Nagasaki."
     Published in Nagasaki, 1820.
     Reprinted version publ. by Nagasaki shidankai, Nagasaki, 1931.

Izumi Takeo: Paintings of Bamboo Flutes. A History
     and Genealogy of Shakuhachi Performance.
     Translated from Japanese by Philip Flavin.
     Tōhoku University Press, Sendai, 2016.

Izumi Takeo: Take o fuku hitobito.
     Kakareta shakuhachi suisō no rekishi to keifu.
     "Pictures of People who Blow the Bamboo.
     History and Genealogy of People Blowing the Shakuhachi."
     Tōhoku University Publishing Society, Sendai, 2013.


Joseph Jennes: History of the Catholic Church in Japan,
From its Beginnings to the Early Meiji Era (1549-1873).
     A Short Handbook. 1973.

Jinrin kinmō zu-i - see Asakura Haruhiko.

Henry Johnson: The Shakuhachi. Roots and Routes.
     Published by Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2014.

Alice Harriet Jones: Mental Discipline and Musical Meaning.
     Doctoral of Musical Arts thesis, Graduate Center, City University of New York, 2015
     Link: https://academicworks.cuny.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2009&context=gc_etds.


Kazuko Kameda-Mader: 'Shokunin Zukushi-e, "Pictures of People of Various Occupations in Their Workshops" in Early Modern Japan.'
     Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, January 2015, 9 pages.
     Publ. online on www.academia.edu, link:
     Shokunin Zukushi-e, "Pictures of People of Various Occupations
     in Their Workshops" in Early Modern Japan

Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi no rekishi."
     In Hōgaku Taikei Vol. 4, pp. 7-16, Tokyo, 1971.

Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi gaku ryakushi:
     suizen no rikai no tame ni". In descriptive notes for
     "Suizen: Chikuhō ryū ni miru fuke shakuhachi no keifu."
     Nippon Columbia LP recording KX 7001-3: pp. 9-22, Tokyo, 1974.

Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716): Kaempfer's Japan: Tokugawa culture observed
     Edited, translated, and annotated by Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 1999.

K'ao Ku (Chinese periodical of archaeology) 1974, Vol. 1.
     K'ao Ku Publishing Co., Beijing, February 1974.

Kanda Kayū: Komusō to Shakuhachi hikki.
     Hōgaku Journal Serial Anthology No. 5649, Tokyo, 2019.

Katsu Kaishū (Katsu Yasuyoshi): Kaishū zenshū, Vol. 5.
     Pages 49-64: About 'Fuke shūmon' matters.
     Kaizōsha, Tokyo, 1927

Jay Keister: 'The Shakuhachi as Spiritual Tool:
     A Japanese Buddhist Instrument in the West.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2004).

Donald Keene: Essays in Idleness. The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō.
     Columbia University Press, 1998.

Kenneth P. Kirkwood: Renaissance in Japan:
     a cultural survey of the seventeenth century.
     Charles E. Tuttle, 1971.

Kikkawa Eishi: 'Hyōtan namazu to shakuhachi. Shakuhachi ni miru bigaku.'
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, pp. 52-59, Tokyo, 1975.

Kishibe Shigeo: The Traditional Music of Japan.
     Kokusai Bunko Shinkokai, Tokyo, 1966.

Kitahara Ikuya, Masumoto Misao & Matsuda Akira:
     The Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments: The Shakuhachi.
     Ongakusha, Tokyo, 1990.

Kiyū shōran. Comp. by Kitamura Nobuyo (1784-1856), first publ. in 1830.
     Reprint by Seikōkan Shuppanbu, 2 vols., Tokyo, 1933.

Koide Kōhei: Nihon no dentō ongaku.
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Koji ruien. Ruien kankōkai, editors. Tokyo, 1896-1914, 51 vols.
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     Latest printed edition: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1967-1971 & 1995-1999.

Koma no Chikazane: Kyōkunshō.
     Original work completed in 1233. Publ. in 2 vols. by
     Nihon Koten Zenshū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1928.

Kobayashi Shizan & Tomimori Kyozan - [Shizan Koji & Kyozanbō Sanshi]:
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     Ōya Shobō、Tokyo, 1930.
     NDL link: http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/1258947?itemId=info%3Andljp%2Fpid%2F1258947&__lang=en

Komusō zakki, see Okumura Noriyoshi & Kodera Gyokuchō

Kondō Ichitarō & Charles S. Terry: The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
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Peter Francis Kornicki: The Book in Japan:
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     E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1998.

Kowata Suigetsu, compiler & editor: Kyotaku denki kokujikai.
     By Yamamoto Morihide, Kyōto, 1795.
     216 pages, Nihon ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1981.

Kowata Suigetsu: "Shakuhachi Kokinshu by Kowata Suigetsu [Showa 26]."
     Informally translated from the original by David Sawyer and Yoko Hiraoka, USA, 2017.
     Direct link to PDF-file:

Kenneth Kraft: Eloquent Zen: Daito and Early Japanese Zen.
     University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992, 1997.

Kurihara Kōta: Shakuhachi shikō. Chikuyūsha, Tokyo, 1918, 1975.

Kyotaku denki/Kyotaku denki kokujikai, see Yamamoto Morihide.


Mette Laderriere: Danes in Japan 1868-1940: Aspects of Early Danish-Japanese Contacts.
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Riley Kelly Lee: 'FU HO U vs. DO RE MI. The Technology of Notation
     Systems and Implications of Change in the
     Shakuhachi Tradition of Japan.'
     In: Asian Music East and Southeast Asia, 19, 2,
     Spring, 1988/Summer, 1988, pp. 71-81.

Riley Kelly Lee: 'Shakuhachi honkyoku notation:
     Written sources in an oral tradition.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 18-35.

Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
     Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
     PhD thesis, University of Sidney, 1993.
     Available online at: www.rileylee.net/thesis.html.

James Legge: The Texts of Taoism.
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Olof G. Lidin: Tanegashima - The Arrival of Europe in Japan.
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Link to online PDF file: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:789497/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Gunnar Jinmei Linder: "About ... " (the Shakuhachi).
     Online internet article, last updated on Jan. 14, 2012.
     URL: http://nipponicom.com/shakuhachi/index.php?About

Gunnar Jinmei Linder:
     Deconstructing Tradition in Japanese Music. A Study of Shakuhachi,
     Historical Authenticity and Transmission of Tradition.
     PhD dissertation, Department of Oriental Languages,
     Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012.

Gunnar Jinmei Linder: 'Shakuhachi.'
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John Daido Loori: The True Dharma Eye.
     Zen Master Dōgen's Three Hundred Kōans.
     Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, 2005.

Lu K'uan Yü: The Secrets of Chinese Meditation.
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Machida Kashō: 'Development of the Shakuhachi.'
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     In Vol. III, Part Six, of Japanese Culture in the Meiji Era, compiled and
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     Ōbunsha, Tōkyō, 1956, pp. 370-377.

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William P. Malm: Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
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Kenneth A. Marcure: "The Danka System."
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Vladislav Matoušek: "Suizen - 'Blowing Zen': Spirituality as Music and Music as Spirituality."
     In: 'Estetika i Krytyka', Nr. 22 (3/2011), pp. 61-72.
     Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Krakóv, 2011.
     Link to PDF-file: https://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/bitstream/handle/item/24527/Grela_Zr%C3%B3d%C5%82a%20tybeta%C5%84skiej%20etyki.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Matsuda Tomihiro, ed., et al.:
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Daigan Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga: Foundation of Japanese
     Buddhism. Vol. I: The Aristocratic Age. Vol. II: The Mass Movement.
     Buddhist Books International, Los Angeles, Tokyo, 1974, 1976.

Christian Theodore Mau:
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     Link to online version: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/18260

Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 1.
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Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 2.
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F.A. McClure: The Bamboos. A Fresh Perspective.
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Mikami Sanji: 'Fuke-shū ni tsuite'.
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Minamoto Unkai; Kanda Shun'ichi, editor: Myōan shakuhachi-kai
     no kijin Minamoto Unkai-shū
     Orig. publications: 1927 & 1934, Shōwa 2 & 9.
     EDITED & published by Kanda Shun'ichi, 1981.

Mizukami Tsutomu: Kyochiku no fue. Shakuhachi shikō.
     Tōkyō, 2006.

Michel Mohr: 'Imagining Indian Zen: Tōrei's Commentary on the
     Ta-mo-to-lo ch'an ching and the Rediscovery of
     Early Meditation Techniques during the Tokugawa Era.'
     In: Steven Heine & Dale S. Wright, eds.: Zen Classics.
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     Download link: http://enlight.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-MAG/mag32013.pdf

Robert T. Mok: "Ancient Musical Instruments Unearthed in 1972
     from the Number One Han Tomb at Ma Wang Tui, Changsha:
     Translation and Commentary of Chinese Reports."
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1978), pp. 39-88.
     Published by: University of Texas Press.

Mori Hikotarō, editor: Shūhū Yokō.
     Published by the Kōkoku-ji,
     Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.

Miura Jōshin: Keichō kenmonshū (1614).
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     Publ. by The Asiatic Society of Japan, London, 1903.

H. Müller: 'Einige Notitzen über die Japanische Musik.'
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     Völkerkunde Ostasiens, I, fasc. 6, Tōkyō, 1876, pp. ?-?.


Nagasaki-shi-hen, Nagasaki History Editors: Nagasaki-shi. Chishi-hen: Butsu-ji bu.
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     Publ. by Nagasaki City, 1923-1925.
     National Diet Library URLs:
     Vol. 1: http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/978668/25
     Vol. 2: http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/978669

Yoichi Nagashima: De dansk-japanske kulturelle forbindelser 1600-1873.
     Museum Tusculanums Forlag, Københavns Universitet,
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Nakatsuka Chikuzen: 'Fuke-shū no seiritsu.'
     In Sankyoku No. 188, Tokyo, Nov. 1937, pp. 20-31.

Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū shakuhachi shikan.
     Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.

Hubert Nearman: Shōbogenzō. A Trainee's Translation of
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     Shasta Abbey Press, California, USA, 2007.

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Nihon Kokugo Dai-jiten. Nihon Dai-jiten Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1973-1975.

Swami Nikhilananda, trsl.: The Māndūkyopanishad with Gaudapāda's 
     Kārikā and Shankara's Commentary.
     Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama, Mysore, 1936, 1968.

Nishimura Kokū: 'Kyotaku - Fuke-shŪ honkyoku.'
     Cover notes for the LP album.
     Toshiba Records TH-7010, Tokyo, 1965.
     Link til discogs.com: https://www.discogs.com/%E8%A5%BF%E6%9D%91%E8%99%9A%E7%A9%BA-%E8%99%9A%E9%90%B8%E6%99%AE%E5%8C%96%E5%AE%97%E6%9C%AC%E6%9B%B2/release/6488923

Nishiyama Matsunosuke; Edo chōnin no kenkyō.
     5 vols. Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, 1973-1975.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke; Gerald Groemer, trsl. & ed.:
     Edo culture, daily life and diversions in urban Japan, 1600-1868.
     (A collection of selected writings by Nishiyama Matsunosuke,
          University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 1997.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
     Chūō Kōronsha, Tokyo, 1971, 1976.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Azekura Shobō, Tokyo, 1956.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.

NKBZ 25: Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū, Vol 25. Revised and annotated
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Peter Nosco, editor: Confucianism and Tokugawa Culture.
     Princeton University Press,
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Jūichi Obata and Takehiko Tesima: 'Further Studies on the Acoustical
     Properties of the Japanese wind Instrument, Syakuhati.'
     In: Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan.
     Tōkyō Imperial University, Faculty of Science, March 1933, pp. 125-134.

Okada Fujio: Komusō no nazo - Suizen no kokoro.
     Akita Bunka Shuppan, 2001.

Okumura Yoshinori (compiler) & Kodera Gyokuchō (editor):
     Komusō zakki, Komusō Notes.
     Photographic reprint of a no later than c. mid-1870s original
     published by the book store Mytown, Nagoya, 2004.

Ōno Osamu: 'Hottō Kokushi wa Fuke shakuhachi no so ni arazu ka.'
     In: Yura machi no Bunkazai 10, March, 1983, pp.89-100.

Ōkura; Toraakira / Ikeda Hiroshi & Kitahara Yasuo, researchers & editors:
     Ōkura; toraakirabon kyōgenshū no kenkyū,
     Vol. 2. Hyōgensha, Tokyo, 1973. Original work published in Kyoto, 1642.

Torsten Olafsson: Kaidō Honsoku, 1628: The Komosō's Fuke
     Shakuhachi Credo. On Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
     Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at www.shakuhachi.com.

Patrick Geoffrey O'Neill: Japanese Names. A Comprehensive Index by Characters and Readings.
     John Weatherhill Inc., New York & Tokyo, First Edition, 1972.

Patrick Geoffrey O'Neill: Japanese Names. A Comprehensive Index by Characters and Readings.
     John Weatherhill Inc., New York, Third Edition, 1993.

Ōno Osamu: 'Hottō Kokushi wa Fuke shakuhachi no so ni arazu ka.'
     In: Yura machi no bunkasai 10 (March), pp. 83-100, Yura, 1983.

Herman Ooms: Tokugawa Ideology. Early Constructs, 1570-1680.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1985.


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Edmond Papinot: Dictionnaire japonais-francais des noms principaux de
     l'histoire et de la géographie du Japon suivi de
     17 appendices sur les empereurs, shōgun, nengō,
     sectes bouddhistes, provinces, départements, mesures, etc.
     Hongkong, 1899.

Francis T. Piggott: The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan
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Edgar W. Pope: 'The Shakuhachi, the Fuke-shū, and the Scholars :
     a historical controversy.'
     In: Journal of Hokusei Gakuen Women's Junior College 36, 31-44,
     Hokusei Gakuen University, Sapporo, 2000.
     Download URL: http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006195052/en.

William N. Porter: The Miscellany of a Japanese Priest.
     Being a Translation of Tsure-zure Gusa.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, Tokyo, 1914, 1976.


Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Emptiness and Temporality.
     Buddhism and Medieval Japanese Poetics.
     Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2008.

Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Murmured Conversations.
     A Treatise on Poetry and Buddhism by the Poet-Monk Shinkei.
     Stanford University Press, California, 2008.

Wilhelm Rasmussen: Japan.
     Frem/Det Nordiske Forlag, Ernst Bojesen, Copenhagen, 1903.

Lauren C. Redburn: A World of Flute Music: A Look at the Impact of Siku
     and Shakuhachi Flute Traditions on Western Classical Repertoire.
     California State University Long Beac, CA, May, 2014.

Kirsten Refsing & Lita Lundquist: Translating Japanese Texts.
     Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009.

Martin P. Regan: Concerto for shakuhachi and 21-string koto:
     A composition, analysis,
     and discussion of issues encountered in cross-cultural
     approaches to music composition. PhD dissertation,
     University of Hawai'i, 2006.

Kurt Reinhard: Chinesische Musik. Erik Rüth Verlag, Eisenach,
     Kassel, 1956.

Edwin O. Reischaur & John K. Fairbank: East Asia. The Great Tradition.
     A History of East Asian Civilization, Vol. 1.
     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass., 1960.

Daniel B. Ribble: "The Tin Whistle and the Shakuhachi: a Comparison
     and Contrast of Two Flutes from the Opposite Ends of Eurasia."
     Medical Humanities, Kochi Medical School,
     Kochi University, pp. 161−173, 2009.

Lauren Nagaryu Rubin: The Shakuhachi and the Didjeridu:
     two case studies of historical iconology, performance practice
     and their relation to avian respiration and song.
     Ph.D. Monash University. Faculty of Arts. School of Music – Conservatorium, 2009.
     Download from: http://arrow.monash.edu.au/hdl/1959.1/198085

Ezra Gardner Rust: The Music and Dance of The World's Religions.
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     Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1996.


Stanley Sadie, editor: The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians.
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     Reprinted 1995 in paperback edition.
     In Volume 9: "Iacobus to Kerman", on pages 532-534
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Stanley Sadie, editor: The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians.
     First published in hardback edition in 1980.
     Reprinted 1995 in paperback edition.
     In Volume 17: "Schütz to Spinto",
     on page 218: "Shakuhachi" - author(s) unknown.

Roberto Sallustio: Shakuhachi - Il suono dell'anima.
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     Published by YouCanPrint, Rome, Italy, 2019.

Ralph Samuelson: Some Aspects of the Kinko-ryū Honkyoku.
     Unpublished MA thesis, Wesleyan University, Middletown (Connecticut), 1971.

James H. Sanford: 'Shakuhachi Zen. The Fukeshū and Komusō.'
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James H. Sanford: Zen-man Ikkyū.
     Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1981.

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John Saris; Ernest M. Satow, editor: The voyage of Captain John Saris to Japan, 1613.
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Ruth Fuller Sasaki, trsl.: The Record of Lin-Chi.
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Sassa Issetsu, editor: Shichiku taizen. "Encopedia of Strings and Bamboo."
     First compiled and published by Takanaka Shijo in 1687.
     Publ. by Miwa Itsujirō, Tokyo, 1916.
     Link to complete online version:

The SAT Daizōkyō Text Database. Tokyo University.
     URL: http://21dzk.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/SAT/index_en.html

William Scott Wilson: The Unfettered Mind. Writings of the Zen master
     to the Sword Master. Tokyo, New York, San Fransisco, 1986.

Sekida Katsuki: Zen Training. Methods and Philosophy.
     John Weatherhill, Inc., New York, 1975.

Shakuhachi dokushū annai. "A Guide to Shakuhachi Self-study."
     Edited by Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai.
     Publ. by Kokureidō shoten, Tokyo, 1915.

Shibayama Zenkei: A Flower Does Not Talk.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. 1970, 1975.

Shichiku taizen, 1687 & 1699 - cf. Takanaka Shijo, compiler.
     Contains 'Ōnusa - Shamisen shoshinsho' of 1685.

Shichiku taizen, 1916 reprint - cf. Sassa Issetsu.

Eido Shimano: The Book of Rinzai. The Recorded Sayings
     of Zen Master Rinzai (Linji).
     The Zen Studies Society Press, New York, 2005.

Shimura Satoshi - see Simura Satosi.

Shiraishi Kaoru: 'Hottō Kokushi ni tsuite.'
     In: Nihon gakushi-in kyō/Japan Academy Bulletin,
     Vol. 6, No.1, pp. 5-28, 1948. Publisher?
     Link: https://doi.org/10.2183/tja1948.6.5

Shizan Koji & Kyozanbō Sanshi
     Cf. Kobayashi Shizan & Tomimori Kyozan.

Shōsōin no Gakki (Musical Intruments in the Shōsōin). Edited by
     Shōsōin Office. Authors: Hayashi Kenzō, Kishibe Shigeo, Taki
     Ryōichi & Shiba Sukehiro. Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sha, Tokyo, 1967.

Shūhū Yokō, edited by Mori Hikotarō. Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji,
     Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.

Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper: The Art and Architecture of
     China. Penguin Book, Harmondsworth, 1956, 1968.

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold: Nippon.
     Archiv Zur Beschreibung Von Japan Und Dessen Neben- Und Schutzländern.
     Jezo Mit Den Südlichen Kurilen, Krafto, Kooraï Und Den Liukiu-Inseln,
     nach japanischen und europäischen Schriften und eigenen Beobachtungen.
     Leyden: bei dem Verf.; Amsterdam: Muller; Leyden: Hoek; Leyden: Lau, 1832.
     Link: http://digital.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/hd/content/titleinfo/977570

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold: Nippon.
     Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan und dessen Neben- und Schutzlandern.
     2 vols. Leyden, 1852.

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold: Nippon.
     Nippon, Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan und dessen Neben - und Schutzländern
     nach japanischen und europäischen Schriften und eigenen Beobachtungen bearbeitet
     Würzburg, 1897

Simura Satosi: 'Chamber Music for Syakuhati'.
     The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Vol. 7, pp. 701-706.
     Publ. by Routledge, 2002.

George Smith: Ten Weeks in Japan.
     Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, London, 1861.

Henrik H. Sorensen: 'The "Hsin-ming" Attributed to Niu-t'ou Fa-jung.'
     In: Journal of Chinese Philosophy Vol.13, 1986, pp. 101-120.
     Dialogue Publishing Company, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
     Link to online version: Sacred Texts - Buddhism - Zen

Werner Speiser: China. Geist und Gesellschaft. Kunst der Welt series.
     Holle Verlag, Baden-Baden, 1959.

Gustav Adolf Spieß: Die Preußische Expedition nach Ostasien während der Jahre 1860-1862:
     Reise-Skizzen aus Japan, China, Siam und der Indischen Inselwelt.
     O. Spamer, Berlin, 1864, 428 pages, ill.
     Link: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.$b808750;view=1up;seq=12

Norman Stanfield: "Honouring Kojima Sensei." November 28th, 2016.
     C/o Ethnomusicology and Popular Music Studies (website).
     URL: https://blogs.ubc.ca/normanstanfield/

Norman Stanfield: The "San Koten Honkyoku" of the The Kinko-ryū:
     A Study of Tradional Solo Music for the Japanese Vertical
     End-blown Flute - the Shakuhachi.
     B.Mus. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1977.

Friedrich Steger, Eduard Hintze & Hermann Wagner, editors:
     Das alte und das neue Japan, oder, Die Nippon-Fahrer:
     In Schilderungen der bekanntesten älteren und neueren Reisen/
     Ursprünglich bearbeitet von Friedrich Steger und Hermann Wagner;
     Neu hrsg. von Eduard Hintze.
     3. edition, O. Spamer, Leipzig, 1874, 494 pages, ill.
     Link: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924023219730;view=1up;seq=10

Sarah Renata Strothers:
     Shakuhachi in the United States: Transcending Boundaries and Dichotomies.
     M.A. thesis, Bowling Green State University, Toledo, Ohio, 2010.
     Link to online PDF file:

Suematsu Kenchō: The Genji Monogatari by Murasaki Shikibu.
     London, 1882. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, London 1977.

Michael Sullivan: The Arts of China. Cardinal/Sphere Books,
     London, 1967, 1973.

Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Essays in Zen Buddhism I, II & III.
     Rider & Company, London, Vol. I: 1950, 1980. Vol. II: 1953, 1980.
     Vol. III: 1953, 1977.

Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Zen and Japanese Culture.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970, 1973.

Henrik Hjort Sørensen - see Henrik H. Sorensen.


Tago Kōin [?]: 'Suizen no yurai ni tsuite.'
     In: Tozan-ryū gakuhō No. 1018, October, 2010.

Takahashi Kūzan: Fukeshū-shi. Sono shakuhachi sōhō no gakuri.
     Fukeshū-shi kankōkai, Tokyo, 1979.

Takahashi Tone: Tozan-ryū: An Innovation of the
     Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     The Florida State University, 1990. Purchasable at:

Takahata Sōyō/Sōyū [?]:
     No publisher given. Source:

Takeda Kyōson: Komusō: sei to zoku no igyōsha-tachi.
     "Komusō: Odd People of the Sacred and the Worldly."
     Sanitsu Shobō, Tokyo, 1997.

Takuan Sōhō: Takuan Oshō zenshū.
     6 volumes, first published in 1928.

Takuan Sōhō: Takuan Oshō zenshū. Vol. 1
     Republished by the Takuan Oshō zenshū Publication Society,
     Tankobon Hardcover, November, 2001.

Tanikita Muchiku: cf. Inagaki Ihaku et al.

Charles E. Tart, editor: Altered States of Awareness. A Book of Readings.
     John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, London, Sidney, Toronto, 1969.

Ian Tattersall & Peter Nŕvraumont: Hoax:
     A History of Deception: 5,000 Years of Fakes, Forgeries, and Fallacies.

Timothy Teyler: Altered States of Awareness.
    Readings from Scientific American Paperback, June, 1972

The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musician: See Stanley Sadie, editor.

Isaac Titsingh (M. Titsingh): Cérémonies usitées au Japon pour les mariages et
     les funérailles suivies de détails sur la poudre Dosia,
     de la préface d'un livre de Confoutzée sur la piété filiale,
     le tout traduit du Japonais.
     Paris, 1819.

Isaac Titsingh (M. Titsingh): Illustrations of Japan; consisting of private memoirs
     and anecdotes of the reigning dynasty of the Djogouns,
     or Sovereigns of Japan; a description of the feasts and ceremonies
     observed throughout the year at their court; and of the ceremonies customary
     at marriages and funerals: to which are subjoined,
     observations on the legal suicide of the Japanese, remarks on their poetry,
     an explanation of their mode of reckoning time, particulars
     respecting the Dosia powder, the preface of a work by Confoutzee on filial piety, &c. &c.
     Translated from the French by Frederic Shoberl, Ackermann, London, 1822.

Isaac Titsingh (M. Titsingh): Mémoires et anecdotes sur la dynastie régnante des Djogouns,
     Souverains du Japon, avec la description des fêtes et c´rémonies
     observées aux différentes époques de l'année à la Cour de ces Princes,
     et un appendice contenant des détails sur la poésie des Japonais,
     leur manière de diviser l'année, etc; Ouvrage orné de Planches gravées et coloriées,
     tiré des Originaux Japonais par M. Titsingh; publié avec des Notes et Eclaircissemens
     Par M. Abel Rémusat, in-8o, Paris (Nepveu), 1820.

Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Nihon no dentō, Vol. 7.
     Tankōsha, Kyōto, 1968.

Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Performing Arts of Japan
     Vol. 5. Transl. from Japanese by Don Kenny.
     Walker/Weatherhill, New York & Tokyo, 1971.

Alison McQueen Tokita & David W. Hughes, editors: The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
     SOAS Musicology Series. 466 pages.
     Publ. by Ashgate Publishing Group, England & USA, 2008.

Tokugawa bungei ruiju, "Collection of Tokugawa Literary Art". 12 volumes.
     Edited and published by Kokusho kankōkai, Tokyo, 1914-1916.
     Link: http://dl.ndl.go.jp/search/searchResult?searchWord=%E6%B5%AE%E4%B8%96%E7%89%A9%E8%AA%9E&facetOpenedNodeIds=&featureCode=all&viewRestrictedList=0&pageNo=1

Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, publ. by Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1931-32.
     Section with Fuke Sect related document on pages 106-116, frames 61-66.
     Link to online version:
     National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, 1932-33

Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, publ. by Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1931-32.
     Section with Fuke Sect related document on pages 106-116, frames 58-63.
     Link to online version: National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, 1932-33

Tokugawa kinreikō (complete). Originally compiled and eventually published in 1880-1899
     by the Japanese Ministry of Justice (Shihōshō, 1871-1948).
     Link to all volumes present in the National Diet Library:
     National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, complete collection

Tomimori Kyozan: Myōan Shakuhachi Tsūkai.
     Myōan Kyozan Bōdōyūkai, Tokyo, 1979.

Tonomura Hitomi: 'Forging the Past: Medieval Counterfeit Documents.'
     Monumenta Nipponica 40, 1, 1985, pp. 69-96.

Toyohara Sumiaki: Taigenshō (original dated 1512)
     1933 edition, 4 vols., edited by Masamune Atsuo
     Nihon Koten Zenshu Kankokai, Tokyo, 1933
     The entire 1933 edition may be downloaded
     from this location: www.archive.org
     - Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library, University of Toronto

Paul Yachita Tsuchihashi: Japanese Chronologicqal Tables
     from 601 to 1872 A.D.
     Sophia University Press, Tokyo, 1952.

Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     Link to online PDF file: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0044-9202(1977)8%3A2%3C47%3ATHOTK%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M

Tsukamoto Kodō, editor: Kinko techō / Kyoreizan Myōan-ji bunken.
     Publ. by Komusō kenkyūkai, Hosshin-ji, Tokyo, 1999.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     M.A. thesis, Osaka University of Fine Arts, 1969.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "Academic Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2000.

Tsukitani Tsuneko, Seyama Tōru & Simura Satosi:
     'The Shakuhachi: The Instrument and its Music,
     Change and Diversification.'
     In: 'Contemporary Music Review', 1994, Vol. 8, Issue 2,
     pp. 103-129. Translated by Riley Kelly Lee.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'The Shakuhachi and its music.' Pages 145-168
     in: The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
     SOAS Musicology Series. 466 pages.
     Publ. by Ashgate Publishing Group, England & USA, 2008.

Royall Tyler, trsl.: Selected Writings of Suzuki Shōsan.
     Cornell University, East Asia Papers, New York, 1977.


Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.

Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2002.

Uramoto Setchō: Manpitsu shichibushū.
     "Collection of Jottings in Seven Parts".
     Jinbun Shoin, Kyoto, 1936.

     Ch. 5, pp. 195-244: About 'Fuke-shū shakuhachi',
     however dated January 26, 1928 (Shōwa 3, 1-26).

Uramoto Setchō: 'Zen mondō to satori.'
     Essay, 12 pages, publ. by Shunjūsha, 1960.


Zachary Wallmark: "Sacred Abjection in Zen Shakuhachi."
     In: Ethnomusicology Review, Volume 17, 2012.
     Link: https://ethnomusicologyreview.ucla.edu/journal/volume/17/piece/585

Burton Watson, trsl.: The Zen Teachings of Master Lin-chi. A translation
     of the Lin-chi Lu. Columbia University Press, 1999.

William Watson: China. William Watson, London, 1961.

William Watson: The Genius of China. Catalogue printed for the
     exhibition of archaeological finds of the People's Republic of
     China at the Royal Academy, London, Sept. 29, 1973, to Jan. 23, 1974.
     Times Newspapers Ltd., London, 1973.

Alan W. Watts: An Outline of Zen Buddhism.
     32 page pamphlet, The Golden Vista Presa, 1932.

Alan W. Watts: Beat Zen Square Zen and Zen.
     City Lights Books, San Francisco, 1959.

Alan W. Watts: The Spirit of Zen.
     A Way of Life, Work and Art in the Far East.
     E.P. Dutton, 1936.

Alan W. Watts: The Way of Zen.
     Pantheon Books, 1957, 1971.

Carl Wegner: Asien - China, Japan, Indien, Zentralasien / Australien und Ozeanien /
     Vorderer Orient / - Geschichte, Kultur, Sprache, Reisewerke,
     Expeditionsberichte. Antiquariats - Katalog des Antiquariat Carl Wegner, Berlin.
     Mit 727 Nummern. Antiquariat Berlin, April 1964.

Elliot Weisgarber: 'The Honkyoku of the Kinko-ryū:
     Some Principles of its Organization.'
     In: Ethnomusicology XII, 3 (September), 1968, pp. 313-344.

Wen Wu (Chinese periodical of ancient matters). Special issue
     about the excavations at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan.
     Wen Wu Publishing Co., Beijing, July 1972.
     Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (English language: http://en.wikipedia.org).

David Gordon White, editor: Tantra in Practice.
     Motilal Banarsidass Publisher, Private Limited, Delhi, 2001.
     First Edition: UK, 2000. Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (Japanese language: http://ja.wikipedia.org).

Duncan Williams: 'The Purple Robe Incident and the Formation
     of the Early Modern Sōtō Zen Institution.'
     Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 36/1, pp. 27–43,
     Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, Kyoto, 2009.

Wong Wah-Sang: 'The Music of Buddha Nature - Blowing Zen on the Shakuhachi.'
     In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science,
     Vol. 4, No. 8, June 2014, pp. 64-80.
     Link to online PDF: www.ijhssnet.com/journals/


Yamada Shōji: 'The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery.'
     Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 2001, 28/1-2.
     Link to online PDF file: https://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/2726

Yamaguchi Masayoshi: Shakuhachi-shi gaisetsu.
     Shiryō to tomo ni tadoru shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2005.

Yamamoto Morihide, compiler & author: Kyotaku denki kokujikai.
     Original Kyōto edition published in 1795.
     1925 edition publ. by Rakubundō c/o The National Diet Library.

Yamamoto Morihide, compiler & author: Kyotaku denki kokujikai.
     Modern version edited by Kowata Suigetsu,
     216 pages, Nihon ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1981.

Yamasaki Taikō: Shingon. Japanese Esoteric Buddhism.
     Shambala, Boston & London, 1988.

Yamashita Yajūrō: Komusō. Fuke-shū Reihō-ji no kenkyū.
     Tama kyōdo kenkyū no kai, Tama, Japan, 1972.

Yamauchi-ke Shiryō Kankō I-inkai, editors:
     Yamauchi-ke shiryō Dainidai Tadayoshi kō ki.
     Publ. by Yamauchi Jinja Hōmotsukan, 4 volumes, Kōchi, 1980-1981.
     Link: https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=%E7%AC%AC%E4%BA%8C%E4%BB%A3%E5%BF%A0%E7%BE%A9%E5%85%AC%E7%B4%80&qt=search_items&search=Search

Yoshikawa Eiji: Komusō keizu.
     Yoshikawa Bunko (40),
     Kodansha, Tokyo, 1976.


Zengaku Jiten, ed. by Jinbo Nyoten & Andō Bun'ei,
     Shōbō Genzō Chūkai Zensho Kankōkai,
     Komazawa Daigaku, Tokyo, 1962.

Zengaku daijiten; Komazawa Daigaku nai Zengaku dai jiten hensanjo, eds.
     Komazawa Daigaku Zengaku dai jiten hensanjo, eds.      Komazawa Daigaku, Tokyo, 1978.

Juzhong Zhang, Garman Harbottle, Changsui Wang & Zhaochen Kong:
     'Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site in China.'
     In: NATURE, Vol. 401, Num. 6755, pp. 366-368, 23 September 1999.

Reinhard Zöllner: Japanische Zeitrechnung.
     Iudicium Verlag, München, 2003.

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