「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark



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About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions

The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Highlighted Illustrations

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera

The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama

 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page

Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern

ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550

1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto

1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise


     c. 1550 to c. 1628?

The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources

1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters

1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō

1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750

1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?

1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?

c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions

1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts

The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'

Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives

1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY


1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia

1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"

Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.

1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws


     1945 ...

1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto

1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"

Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"

The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan

3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...

1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages

Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators

Literature / References


Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

1872-1878 (1843-44): The Komusō zakki Source Collection


This essential source collection was first prepared during the mid-19th century, however eventually published only shortly after the Meiji Restoration in 1867-1868.

Among the historical material contained you find the very important text and honkyoku-related document 'Shakuhachi denrai-ki',
尺八伝来記 dated 1732.

The Komusō zakki, 虚無僧雑記, is an anthology of Edo Period shakuhachi-related texts and pictures that was originally compiled/authored by Okumura Noriyoshi, 奥村得義, who lived from 1793 to 1862.

In 1843-44 (Tenpō 14-15), the scholar and writer Kodera Gyokuchō, 小寺玉晁, 1800-1878 - a retainer of the Owari clan, Nagoya - borrowed and copied the material, then annotated and prepared the work for eventual publication.

However, according to the shakuhachi historian Yatō Osamu, 矢頭治, Komusō zakki may first have been presented in final print as late as in or rather after 1871.
Link: Komusō zakki

In 2004, a reprint of the book was re-published by the bookstore Mytown in Nagoya, Japan

Okumura Yoshinori (compiler) & Kodera Gyokuchō (editor):
     Komusō zakki, "Komusō Notes".
     Photographic reprint of a quite early Meiji Period original
     published by the book store Mytown, Nagoya, 2004.


Edo Period Komusou picture in 'Komusou zakki'

Komusō in 'Komusō zakki', 2004, p. 40,
redrawn from the 'Nippon bushi kagami' - a.k.a. 'Kokon bushi kagami'
- by Mukunashi Issetsu, 1696.

Edo Period Komosou picture in 'Komusou zakki'

Komosō in 'Komusō zakki', 2004, p. 46,
redrawn from the 'Kanden kōhitsu' by Ban Kōkei, 1799.

That is in fact a very poor redrawing from some so far unknown copy
of the 'Sanjūniban shokunin utaawase emaki', 1494.

Edo Period Komusou picture in 'Komusou zakki'

Edo Period komusō picture in 'Komusō zakki', 2004, p. 47,
redrawn from the 'Jinbutsu sōjin', 1724.

The original work from which this illustration was redrawn
has not yet been located online on the internet. T.O., July, 2019.

Edo Period Komosou picture in 'Komusou zakki'

Komosō in 'Komusō zakki', 2004, p. 48,
redrawn from the 'Sanjūniban shokunin utaawase emaki', 1494.

Do note, importantly, that the title text in the upper right corner is mistaken in that,
erroneously, it reads 'Shichijū ichiban shokunin utaawase',
which is the name of a different likewise famous poetry contest scroll dated 1501.

Edo Period Komosou picture in 'Komusou zakki'

2 so named 'komusō' in 'Komusō zakki', 2004, p. 83,
redrawn from the 'Ōnusa/Shamisen shoshinho', 1685.

Edo Period Komusou picture in 'Komusou zakki'

3 Edo Period komusō pictures in 'Komusō zakki', 2004, p. 84:
Right: redrawn from 'Ehon mitsu wagusa', 1758
Top left: redrawn from 'Ukiyo monogatari', 1661 or 1665
Bottom left: redrawn from 'Jinrin kinmo zui', 1690


"Account of the Transmission of the Shakuhachi"

The complete Shakuhachi denrai-ki as reproduced in the 2004 reprint
of the Komusō zakki on pages 89 to 93.
Published by the book store Mytown in Nagoya, Japan

Go to this internal web page to study the title list in detail:
1732: The 'Shakuhachi denraiki'

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki


Go to this internal web page to study the translated title list in detail:

1732: The 'Shakuhachi denraiki'

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi kyoku titles in the 'Shakuhachi denraiki'.
Source: 'Komusō zakki', 虚無僧雑記, 1732

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

Go to this internal web page to study the translated title list in detail:

1732: The 'Shakuhachi denraiki'

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