Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage




Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


妙安寺 - MYŌAN-JI
雍州府志

1682-1686: YŌSHŪFU-SHI - Records of the Kyōto Area

雍州府志 巻四
寺院門上
妙安寺
在 蓮華王院 南 而為禪刹。


"Records of the Kyōto Area, Volume 4
Temples & Shrines, Part 1
Myōan-ji is located south of the Rengeō-in, 蓮華王院, "Hall of the Lotus King" [the Sanjūsangen-dō], and it is a Zen temple."

The descriptive text continues like this, in Max Deeg's translation (Deeg, 2007, p. 26):

"In the recent past there was a strange monk called Roan. Nobody knows where he comes from. At his time he was very close to master Ikkyū of the Daitoku-ji, Ryūgoku-zan 龍寶山. He had a predilection for the practice of the wind-holes (that is: flutes) and he loved to blow the shakuhachi.
He called himself 'the ascetic wind-hole' (fūketsu-dōsha 風穴道者).
Originally he lived in the district of Uji 宇治 in the (hermitage) Kyūkō-an 吸江菴.
He also lived in this temple (Myōan-ji) for a while. As people say, this is the main temple of the komusō." "

This may be regarded as the earliest known written reference to the Kyōto Myōan Temple in South Eastern Kyōto (Higashiyama Area) although the name is written with different characters.

The famous Sanjūsangen-dō, 三十三間堂, with its 1001 golden Kannon statues is situated just south of the present Shichi-jō Avenue in the Higashiyama area.

However, there is general consensus that not long afterwards and until 1871 the Kyoreizan Myōan-ji was rather located a short distance to the North, in the close neighbourhood of the famous Edo Period Dai-butsu, 大仏, "Great Buddha", of the Tendai temple Hōkō-ji, 方広寺, right north of the Toyokuni Shrine.
Other close neighbours in this area are the present-day Kyōto National Museum to the South and the Myōhō-in to the East.

     10 volumes by Kurokawa Dōyū, died 1691.
     Source: Yamaguchi, 2005, p. 82.
     Trsl. Torsten Olafsson, 2013.





托鉢修行 - TAKUHATSU SHUGYŌ
根竹尺八 - KONJIKU SHAKUHACHI


人倫訓蒙図彙

1690 - JINRIN KINMŌ ZU-I

"An Illustrated Dictionary of Human Matters", or: "An Illustrated Vocabulary of Human Relations"


Two komusō in Jinrin kinmō zu-i, 1690

Two 'komusō' playing root-end shakuhachi
In: 'Jinrin kinmō zu-i', 1690 - Maki/Vol. 2
By Makieshi Genzaburō & Atsuo Masamune
The Library of Kyōto University
Link to Kyōto University's online presentation of this volume

Two komusō in Jinrin kinmō zu-i, 1690

In: Ueno, 2002, p. 219

This is the so far possibly oldest known surviving picture showing 'komusō'
performing 'taku-hatsu', 托鉢, or: 'being entrusted with a bowl'
(practicing ascetic religious mendicancy) at the gate of a house.

Their flutes are certainly of the heavy 'kon-jiku', 根竹, or "root-end" type.


Two komusō in Jinrin kinmō zu-i, 1690

Two komusō in Jinrin kinmō zu-i, 1690

Do note that the figure to the left is clad in the traditional dress of a Buddhist monk whereas the figure on the right is wearing the - apparently representive - outfit of the early 'komusō'.


The text accompanying. and sort of "explaining". the picture in Volume 2 of this encyclopedia is to be located but a few pages after the picture page itself - in frame 48 of the online edition:

Text page presenting the explanation of the 'shakuhachi' picture previously shown


Close to the upper right corner of the page to the right you see this text section with the heading 'Shakuhachi':

xxx       xxx


Here the original wording presented as online digital Japanese kanji ideographs:

尺八
其長一尺八寸のゆえに尺八と号す。
楊貴妃の哀音を表すとかや。
玄宗帝の作なり。
唐土の僧普化和尚、これを愛せらる。
今、虚毛僧は此末流なり。


In English:

"Because its length is 1 foot 8 inches, it is called shakuhachi.
Maybe it expresses the sad voice of the Willow Princess ... ?
It originates in an occult, noble sect.
The Chinese T'ang Dynasty monk Fuke liked it [a lot].
Today, the Kyomōsō are the descendants [of his]."

     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2018.




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