Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage




Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1494:

三十二番職人歌合絵巻 - SANJŪNIBAN SHOKUNIN UTA-AWASE EMAKI

"Picture Scroll Depicting a Poetry Contest on Thirty-two Professions"

"(uta:) Inmidst of the spring flowers - who should be disturbed by the blowing? It is not the wind but the shakuhachi of the komo.
(kotobagaki:) The samādhi of the komo-sō consists of putting a paper-cape around his shoulder, hanging a rice bowl at his hip going in front of the doors of the rich and the poor and playing the shakuhachi - they are of no other use."

     Quoted from the 'Sanjūni-ban shokunin uta-awase emaki,
     Muromachi Period (1333-1573) picture scroll,
     c. 1494. Trsl. by Max Deeg, 2007.



"Amidst spring flowers who should care that the wind blows?
It is not the wind but the shakuhachi of the komo."
"The komo-sō are absorbed in visiting the houses of both rich and poor,
begging and playing shakuhachi - that is all they can do."

     Quoted from the 'Sanjūniban shokunin uta-awase emaki',
     Muromachi Period (1333-1573) picture scroll,
     1494. Trsl. in Blasdel/Kamisangō, 1988.


Komosō in Sanjūni-ban shokukin utaawase emaki

Komosō in 'Sanjūni-ban shokukin uta-awase emaki'
Date of original: 1494. Kōsetsu-bon version.
Suntory Museum of Art, Tokyo.
Source: Wikipedia, Japan


Komosō in Sanjūni-ban shokukin utaawase emaki


薦僧 - KOMOSŌ
虚妄僧 - KYOMŌSŌ

六番

虚妄僧

花ざかり
ふくとも誰か
いとふべき
風にはあらぬ
こもの尺八。

薦僧の三昧紙きぬ肩にかけ
面桶腰につけ、
貴賤の門戸によりて
尺八ふくほかに
は別の業なき者にや。


No. 6. Right side. Kyomōsō [winning poem]:

'Even if he plays
when the cherries are in bloom,
everybody wants to evade him.
Unwelcome as the wind -
the Komo's shakuhachi.'

The Komosō is clad in paper meditation garments and a food bucket is tied to his loin. I doubt him to be a person who, besides approaching the gates of high and low, blowing the shakuhachi, has any other profession."

     Quoted from the 'Sanjūni-ban shokunin uta-awase emaki', 1494.
     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 1987.
     Source: Gunsho Ruijū, Vol. 28, 1933.


No. 22. Right side. Kyomōsō [losing poem]:

二十二番

虚妄僧

さし入も、
みそや酒やの、
糟法師、
聲をかへても、
こうは茶はかり。


'That humble monk,
presenting his rice bowl
at miso shop and sake shop;
though modulating his voice,
the only alms he gets is - tea.'"

     Quoted from the 'Sanjūni-ban shokunin uta-awase emaki', 1494.
     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2011.
     Source: Yamaguchi Masayoshi, 2005, p. 119.


Komosō in Sanjūni-ban shokukin utaawase emaki

Komosō in 'Sanjūni-ban shokukin uta-awase emaki'
Tōhoku University Library, Kano Collection




琵琶法師 - BIWA-HŌSHI

1501:

七十一番職人歌合絵巻

SHICHI-JŪ-ICHIBAN SHOKUNIN UTA-AWASE EMAKI


Biwa-hōshi in Shichijūichi-ban shokukin utaawase emaki

Biwa-hōshi with a hitoyogiri shakuhachi and panflute by his side
in 'Shichijūichi-ban shokukin utaawase emaki'
Date of original: 1501. Tōkyō National Museum





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