Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage





Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info




Mu-ku-teki Suizen

"MU-KU-TEKI SUIZEN"
No-hole Flute Blowing Meditation
Calligraphy by Myōan Taizan
- Higuchi Taizan?
(in the author's collection)



Myō-an

"MYŌ-AN"
The Duality of the Clear
and the Obscure
By Tanikita Muchiku, 1875-1957



Mind-Moon-Circle

"MIND-MOON-CIRCLE"
Calligraphy by Ryōkan
18th or early 19th century
(shown in negative)


Chronology

JAPAN 8 • 1883 ...

India
2600 BCE - 800 CE
China 1
6000 BCE - 500 CE
China 2
500 CE ...
Japan 1
600 - 1233
Japan 2
1233 - 1477
Japan 3
1477 - 1560
Japan 4
1560 - 1614
Japan 5
1614 - 1664
Japan 6
1664 - 1767
Japan 7
1767 - 1883
Japan 8
1883 ...
The West
1298 ...












A list of references is included at page bottom.
A complete bibliography can be found on this separate webpage: "Literature".


Cordial thanks to Taguchi Shigeo & Kirsten Refsing (PhD, Professor Emerita), Denmark, for assisting me with the translation and interpretation of essential texts presented on this webpage, related to the Myōan Taizan-ha tradition of "Ascetic Shakuhachi Practice".



THE REORGANIZATION and CONTINUATION of ASCETIC SHAKUHACHI PRACTICES in JAPAN

1883: The 1871 government ban on religious mendicancy is lifted.



明暗協会 - MYŌAN KYŌKAI
明暗対山派本曲 - MYŌAN TAIZAN-HA HONKYOKU

1890 - THE MYŌAN SOCIETY is FOUNDED

In July, 1890 (Meiji 23), a new shakuhachi society, the Myōan kyōkai, 明暗教会, was established - with the purpose of the preservation and continued practice of original Komusō Shakuhachi music.
A comprehensive repertory of carefully chosen shakuhachi pieces, the socalled honkyoku, had been compiled by Higuchi Taizan, 1856-1914, who became the first head instructor of a new line of ascetic shakuhachi practice, the Myōan Taizan-ha, 明暗対山派,

According to Machida Kashō, 1956, p. 375, however, the information is given somewhat differently,

"The Fuke sect had been outlawed in 1871, and the following year the regimen of the mendicant had been proscribed. This led to great difficulties in the propagation of Buddhism, however, and in 1878 the various sects jointly petitioned the government for permission to revive mendicancy.

In 1881 the request was granted by the Ministry of the Interior.

In 1883 the Meian Kyōkai (Meian Society) was founded with Prince Kujō as its head, its purpose being to preserve the komusō system, even if The Fuke Sect itself could not be revived. - - - "

Much later, probably beginning in the early 1950s, various Suizen gyōka shō, 吹禅行化証, or "Ascetic Shakuhachi Practice Certificates", were issued, replacing the former Komusō gyōka shō 虚無僧行化証, of the Edo Period.

Suizen gyōke seiganbun

Present-day Suizen gyōka seiganbun, 吹禅行化誓願文,
"Ascetic Shakuhachi Practice Oath", issued after 1950.

The source of the above given information, it should be noted, is the website named Myōan dōshukai, 明暗導主会: Myōan dōshukai


明暗寺三十五世 樋口対山

MYŌAN-JI SANJŪGO-SE HIGUCHI TAIZAN

Higuchi Taizan

Higuchi Taizan - 1856-1914


Chōshi, calligraphed by Higuchi Taizan

Chōshi, calligraphed by Higuchi Taizan
A treasure of the Higuchi Family
In: Ikeda Juzan shū. Taizan-fu shūi, 1985, p. 62




20th CENTURY

1930s

Okabe Village: Two komusō walking in the Snow

Okabe Village: Two komusō walking in the Snow
Tanzaku print, 1930s, by Takahashi Shōtei, 1871-1945
Sources: www.degener.com & www.shotei.com




明暗寺三十七世 谷北無竹

MYŌAN-JI SANJŪNANA-SE TANIKITA MUCHIKU


Tanikita Muchiku

Tanikita Muchiku - 1878-1957


1940s?

Myōan sōbō

'MYŌAN SŌ BŌ'
"Bright-Dark Pair Forget"

Calligraphy in honkyoku ori-hon dated 1941? (Shōwa 16?)
by Tanikita Rōan Muchiku, 1878-1957
Reproduced in Inagaki, 1981



Ch#0333; tan haku-un kō - sh#0333; tetsu heki tan shin

'CHŌ TAN HAKU-UN KŌ - SHŌ TETSU HEKI TAN SHIN

調干白雲高、聲徹碧潭深。

"The Music drinks of the Eminence of White Clouds;
The Voice permeates the Profundity of Blue Water in the Deep"

Chinese poem in honkyoku ori-hon dated 1941? (Shōwa 16?)
by Tanikita Rōan Muchiku, 1878-1957
in praise of a famous poem by Fuke Zenji's
master Banzan Hōshaku, 720-814
Reproduced in Inagaki, 1981
Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2010




宗教法人普化正宗明暗寺 - SHŪKYŌ-HŌJIN FUKE SHŌSHŪ MYŌAN-JI

1950: In March, "The Religious Institution Temple of Light and Darkness of the True Fuke Sect", Shūkyō-hōjin Fuke Shōshū Myōan-ji, is established and opened in the Zen'ei-in, a small subtemple of Tōfuku-ji, SE Kyōto, as the official head temple of all Komusō/Fuke Shakuhachi branches in Japan.


Kyōto Myōan-ji, 1977

The gate of Kyōto Myōan-ji, the signboard reading
"Myōan-ji - Fundamental Spiritual Training Center for the Shakuhachi".
Photo by Torsten Olafsson, 1977




1950-1953:

吹禅 - SUIZEN

"Blowing a Flute Asceticism"

This very new term was most certainly invented and introduced into modern ascetic shakuhachi ideology by Yasuda Tenzan, 安田天山, 1909-1994, while he was acting as the first head monk of the modern Myōan Temple during the years 1950 to 1953.

On Saturday August 8, 2009, US citizen Dean Seicho Del Bene posted this illustration on his Myoan Shakuhachi Blogspot Website:

Tomimori Kyozan's Statement regarding the origin of the terms suizen/suishouzen,nodate

Tomimori Kyozan's Statement regarding the origin of the terms suizen/suishouzen, no date



1960:

浦本浙潮 - URAMOTO SETCHŌ

Uramoto Setchō, 1891-1965

Uramoto Setchō, 1891-1965
Link to source: Uramoto Setchō commemoration webpage


普化尺八: 行 音楽

FUKE SHAKUHACHI: GYŌ no ONGAKU: MUSIC of ASCETICISM

「普化尺八は行の音楽であった。

尺八は心で吹くな 手で吹くな
寒夜に霜の降るごとく吹け -
総てが自然であり、殊更なる意識なく、
まして況んや技巧をや。

混沌として未分、只精進に因 って
s のみ向上する。

若し人間も措いて尺八だけがうまいといふ人があるならば、それは人間と尺八との分離である、

混沌未分ではなくして病的分離の症状に過ぐ ぎぬ。」



"Fuke Shakuhachi was (is) the music of asceticism [gyō no ongaku].

Playing shakuhachi, you blow with your mind, blow with your fingers, like when frost comes down in the shivering cold night.

As a whole, it is "Self" / "Nature" [shizen] without any deliberate consciousness.
Not to mention, let alone any technique, nor finesse [gikō].

Being unresolved in confusion, simply practicing asceticism will nothing but bring about elevation [alt.: improvement, advancement, progress].

Supposingly, when there are people who say that there are also human beings to whom the shakuhachi is only "delicious" [umai] ... that is to detach human beings from the shakuhachi.

Doing away with unresolved confusion, that brings an end to the symptoms of abnormal detachment."

     Quotation from Uramoto Setchō's essay 'Zen mondō to satori.'
     Essay originally published by Shunjūsha, 1960, 12 pages.
     Source of quotation and info: Kikkawa Eishi, 1975, pp. 55-56.
     Uramoto Setchō's essay, 12 pages, originally published by Shunjūsha, 1960.
     Quotation translated by Torsten Olafsson, 2018.




池田壽山 - IKEDA JUZAN


Ikeda Juzan

Ikeda Juzan - 1888-1976
In: Ikeda Juzan shū, 1985


1960:

Ikeda Juzan sumi-e, 1960: Shakuhachi and 'Ichion jōbutsu'

Shakuhachi and 'Ichion jōbutsu' calligraphy
Sumi-e dated 1960 (Shōwa 35) by Ikeda Juzan, 1888-1976,
a prominent student of Higuchi Taizan
Reproduced in Ikeda Juzan shū, 1985



1966:

Ikeda Juzan sumi-e, 1960: Shakuhachi and 'Ichion jōbutsu'

Famous "Suizen" monument erected in June, 1966, at the Myōan Temple in Kyōto.
Photo courtesy of historian Yuki Tanaka at http://yjtanaka.blogspot.com/p/hobby.html.





Kyōto Myōan-ji, 1977

Kyōto Myōan-ji, Main Hall completed in 1969
Photo by Torsten Olafsson, 1977




禅尺八 - ZEN SHAKUHACHI
修養の尺八 - SHŪYŌ no SHAKUHACHI


明暗寺四十世 芳村普庵宗心

MYŌAN-JI YONJŪ-SE YOSHIMURA FUAN SŌSHIN


Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin

Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin - 1904-1998


1977 - YOSHIMURA FUAN SŌSHIN

此れは明暗尺八吹奏と言ふ物でわ有りません。
決定された吹奏法と言ふ物は御在いません。
唯、私の言えまするは素直な心で、
唯、一心に吹くるが私の心です。

技功を弄して、上手に吹くとか、
大いにならして、人に聞かせ様等
と言ふ我の心を持って吹くるは
一番悪い人間の心だと
私は考えて居ります。

技功によって変わった音を出す人も有りますが、
明暗寺尺八吹奏は自分の心に音を聞かせて
自分がその音によって、心を修めるるが
私の禅尺八の有り方と考えて居ります。

なかなか言葉では表現出来ませんが、
つまり禅尺八としての尺八は唯々
心を素直に持って, 我の心による
技功に成らない様、修養の尺八です。

此の修養の毎日の積み重ねが
自分と言ふ人間の心に成ります。

何るも、自然にさからうるは悪いるです。
自然に副って、道をあやまらぬ様にと
私は日々心がけて居ります。


"Myōan Shakuhachi can not be likened to the playing of an ordinary wind instrument.
Such thing as a fixed way of playing does not exist.
What I can say is, plainly, that I am only concerned with directing my blowing towards my own Self - with a gentle mind."

It is my opinion that people who trifle with skill of playing and "play well" - who exercise exceedingly intending to impress the listener and the like - that way of blowing with an egocentric mind represents the worst of human attitudes (that I can think of).

There are people who can produce changing sounds depending on technical skill, but as for the shakuhachi practice of the Myōan Temple,
I believe that the ideal way of Zen Shakuhachi is to let one's true Mind listen to the sounds and to cultivate one's own Self in accordance with those sounds.

I can not easily express this in words but to practice the shakuhachi of Zen Shakuhachi is indeed a way of mental training and self-cultivation that is practiced with an open and humble mind and does not develop into (mere) technical skill with a selfish attitude.

The accumulation of this daily practice will, eventually, bring about the realization of the true Self of one's Human Nature.

It is, in any case, wrong to act against Nature.
I am devoting myself every day to follow Nature and not to be mistaken about the Way."

     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin, Myōan-ji, August 9, 1977.
     Private correspondance. Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson




明暗尺八 - MYŌAN SHAKUHACHI
明暗雙雙 - MYŌAN SŌSŌ
法器 - HŌKI


小沢盛山

1978 - OZAWA SEIZAN

Ozawa Seizan, letter of recommendation, 1978

Detail of a letter of recommendation for T.O.
written by Ozawa Seizan in Spring, 1978
See translation below ...


当明暗尺八は、普化宗に属じ日本古耒の伝承されじ
尺八お法器として、明暗双々円通無碍の実力を修得じ、虚に帰して、精神の修養を高めんとするしので有る。 これを吹禅と稱する。


"Myōan Shakuhachi is related to the Fuke Sect of Shakuhachi and it has as its purpose to employ the ancient Japanese shakuhachi flute as a Dharma instrument [hō-ki] in order that one understands the Ultimately Adual Nature of the 'Clear' and the 'Un-clear' [Myō-An] and experiences the Essence of Non-substantiality [kyo] through self-cultivation.
This practice is called Suizen."

     By Ozawa Seizan, 1939-2012, Myōan-ji, 1978, in a letter
     of recommendation to the author. Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson.



Ozawa Seizan, 1978

Ozawa Seizan Sensei, 1939-2012 - Spring, 1978




1985

The Tantric symbol 'A' & 'Suizen godo'

Opening pages of a honkyoku folding book (ori-hon)
written by Matsumoto Kyozan, dated 1985.

To the right: 'Suizen godō':
"Suizen Way of Buddhist Enlightenment".

To the left the Sanskrit seed syllable 'A' (Jap.: 'A')
of the Buddha Mahāvairocana, or
Dainichi Nyorai, residing in the center of the
Taizō-kai (Womb Realm) mandala (Skt.: Garbhadātu)
of Japanese Tantric Buddhism (Shingon)
Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson




Link to the next page: The West
Link to the previous page: Japan 7 • 1767-1883


List of references:

Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1988, 2008.
     Available at www.shakuhachi.com.
Andreas Gutzwiller: Die Shakuhachi der Kinko-Schule.
     Bärenreiter - Kassel, Basel, London, 1983.
Ikeda Juzan shū. Taizan-fu shūi. Tokyo, 1985.
Inagaki Ihaku, Izui Seizan & Takahashi Ryochiku, editors:
      Myōan Sanjūnana-sei Tanikita Muchiku-shū.
      Taizan-fu shūi. Tanikita Renzō, Kyoto, 1981.
Kikkawa Eishi: 'Hyōtan namazu to shakuhachi. Shakuhachi ni miru bigaku.'
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, pp. 52-59, Tokyo, 1975.
Kitahara Ikuya, Masumoto Misao & Matsuda Akira:
     The Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments: The Shakuhachi.
     Ongakusha, Tokyo, 1990.
Kiyū Shōran. Comp. by Kitamura Nobuyo (1784-1856), first publ. in 1830.
     Reprint by Seikōkan Shuppanbu, Tokyo, 1933.
Koji Ruien. Ruien Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1896-1914. Reduced size reprint ed.
     by Jungū Shichō, Tokyo, 1927-1930. Latest edition: Yoshikawa
     Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1967-1971. Vol. 9: Section on Religion.
     Vols. 32 & 35: Section on Music.
Kondō Ichitarō & Charles S. Terry: The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
     by Hokusai. Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1968.
Kurihara Kōta: Shakuhachi shikō. Chikuyūsha, Tokyo, 1918, 1975.
Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
     Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
     PhD thesis, Univerity of Sidney, 1992.
     Available online at: www.rileylee.net/thesis.html.
Dennis Eugene Lishka: Buddhist Wisdom and Its Expression as Art:
     The Dharma of the Zen Master Takuan.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976. Purchasable at:
     UMI Dissertation Services - www.il.proquest.com. Cat. no.: 7708798.
Tomohiro Matsuda, ed., et al.:
     A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts.
     Nichiren Shoshu International Center, Tokyo, 1983.
Daigan Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga: Foundation of Japanese
     Buddhism. Vol. I: The Aristocratic Age. Vol. II: The Mass Move-
     ment. Buddhist Books International, Los Angeles, Tokyo, 1974, 1976.
Michel Mohr: 'Imagining Indian Zen: Tōrei's Commentary on the
     Ta-mo-to-lo ch'an ching and the Rediscovery of
     Early Meditation Techniques during the Tokugawa Era.'
     In: Steven Heine & Dale S. Wright, eds.: Zen Classics.
     Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism.
     Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 2006.
Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū Shakuhachi Shikan.
     Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
     Chūō Kōronsha,Tokyo, 1971, 1976.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.
Torsten Olafsson: Kaidō Honsoku, 1628: The Komosō's Fuke
     Shakuhachi Credo. On Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
     Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at www.shakuhachi.com.
James H. Sanford: 'Shakuhachi Zen. The Fukeshū and Komusō.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica XXXII, 4. Sophia University, Tokyo, 1977.
Shibayama Zenkei: A Flower Does Not Talk.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. 1970, 1975.
Shūhō Yokō, edited by Mori Hikotarō. Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji,
     Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.
Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Essays in Zen Buddhism I, II & III.
     Rider & Company, London, Vol. I: 1950, 1980. Vol. II: 1953, 1980.
     Vol. III: 1953, 1977.
Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Zen and Japanese Culture.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970, 1973.
Takahashi Tone: Tozan-ryū: An Innovation of the
     Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     The Florida State University, 1990. Purchasable at:
     www.shakuhachi.com
Tomimori Kyozan: Myōan Shakuhachi Tsūkai.
     Myōan Kyozan Bōdōyūkai, Tokyo, 1979. 
Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     Available online at: www.links.jstor.org
Royall Tyler, trsl.: Selected Writings of Suzuki Shōsan.
     Cornell University, East Asia Papers, New York, 1977
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2002.
Zengaku Jiten, ed. by Jimbo Nyoten & Andō Bun'ei,
     Shōbō Genzō Chūkai Zensho Kankōkai,
     Tokyo, 1962. Page 1501.

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