Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage




Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info




Shakuhachi-playing bodhisattva

Shakuhachi-playing bodhisattva
Octagonal bronze-lamp
Tōdai-ji, Nara. 8th century



Shōsōin Jade shakuhachi

Jade shakuhachi
Shōsōin, Nara
Early 8th century



Shakuhachi-playing bodhisattva

Shakuhachi-playing bodhisattva
Statue by Jōchō, 1053
Byōdō-in, Uji



Nara Period court musicians

Nara Period court musicians:
Shakuhachi, mouth-organ
& pan-pipes
In: 'Shinzei kogaku zu'
by Fujiwara no Michinori,
d. 1159




Chronology

JAPAN 1 • 600-1233

India
2600 BCE - 800 CE
China 1
6000 BCE - 500 CE
China 2
500 CE ...
Japan 1
600 - 1233
Japan 2
1233 - 1477
Japan 3
1477 - 1560
Japan 4
1560 - 1614
Japan 5
1614 - 1664
Japan 6
1664 - 1767
Japan 7
1767 - 1883
Japan 8
1883 ...
The West
1298 ...












A list of references is included at page bottom.
A complete bibliography can be found on this separate webpage: "Literature".



JAPAN A.D. 600-1233 - THE AGE of the 'GAGAKU' SHAKUHACHI

佛教 - BUKKYŌ

7th CENTURY:


Hōryū-ji Kondō, Nara - 7th century

Hōryū-ji Kondō, Nara - late 7th century - photo: T.O. 1977


Bodhisattva playing a shakuhachi   Bodhisattva playing a shakuhachi

Small sculpture of a bodhisattva playing a shakuhachi look-alike.
Discovered in 2009 during a restoration of the canopy overhanging the Shaka Triad being housed in the Hōryū-ji Kondō.
Source: Yatō Osamu's komusō shakuhachi website


Hoeyu-ji gagaku shakuhachi

Transverse flute (left) and 'gagaku shakuhachi' (right) in the collection of art objects
in The Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasures, Tokyo National Museum. 7th or 8th century AD.
Source: http://www.wombat.zaq.ne.jp/auamm705/news-tominaga.htm


Hōryū-ji Kondō, Nara - 7th century

Hōryū-ji Kondō, Nara - late 7th century - photo: T.O. 1977




行者 - GYŌJA
山伏 - YAMABUSHI


Statue of En no Gyōja, born in 634

Statue of En no Gyōja (alt. En no Ozunu), born in 634
Alleged founder of the 'Shugendō', an ascetic religious tradition combining elements of Chinese Taoism, Japanese Shintō,
esoteric Buddhism: Shingon 'Mikkyō' and Tendai,
as well as traditional Japanese shamanism.
A treasure of the Shugendō temple Ōminesan-ji, Yoshino District,
Wakayama Pref., founded by En no Gyōja. Maker and date unknown.


Yamabushi - one who prostrates on the mountain

Yamabushi - modern statue at the entrance of the Hotel Yaotome
in Tsukuoka City, Yamagata Pref. Artist anonymous




雅楽尺八 - GAGAKU SHAKUHACHI

8th CENTURY:


Shôsôin Imperial Treasury, Nara

Shōsōin Imperial Treasury, Tōdai-ji, Nara - early 8th century


Gagaku Shakuhachi, Shôsôin Imperial Treasury, Nara
Gagaku Shakuhachi, Shôsôin Imperial Treasury, Nara

Gagaku Shakuhachi, Shōsōin Imperial Treasury, Tōdai-ji, Nara
Early 8th century




唱名 - SHŌMYŌ

Mid 9th CENTURY:

An anecdote about ENNIN, posthum. Jikaku Taishi, 793/794-866

Important note: This anecdote is apocryphal. The "incident" certainly never took place, so to speak!

音聲不足令座給之間、
以尺八引聲ノ阿彌陀經ヲ令吹傳給ヌ、
「成就如是 功徳莊嚴」
ト云所ヲ, エ吹セ給ハザリケレバ、
常行堂ノ辰巳ノ松扉ニテ、
吹アツカハセ給タリケルニ、
空中ニ有音告云、
「ヤノ音ヲ加ヨ」云云、
自之如是ヤト云音ハ加也。


"At times when Ennin could not hear clearly, he used a shakuhachi in order to chant the Amida Sūtra.
If he did not manage to chant the passage '... an ideal environment so that whatever one lays eyes upon will bring about awakening',* he would usually place himself by the 'Dragon and Serpent' pine wood doors of the temple hall, and when he had stopped blowing, there was a voice in the middle of the empty sky proclaiming, 'Raise the ya note', and so forth. Consequently, the ya note had to be raised."

     Reported in the 'Kojidan', 1212, by Minamoto no Akikane,
     1160-1215. Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson. Source: Koji ruien.
     This anecdote is quite probably apocryphal.
     Do note that Ennin was a Tendai monk, not a Zen monk.
     Rather than actually "performing" the Amida Sutra on a shakuhachi,
     Ennin would have employed the instrument mainly for intonation.
     This anecdote is also reported in the Taigenshō of 1512.


* The unabridged sentence in the Amida Sūtra, par. 3, reads as follows:

舍利弗.極樂國土. 成就如是.功徳莊嚴。

"Shariputra, this land of Ultimate Bliss is an ideal environment so that whatever one lays eyes upon will bring about awakening."
Translation: Jodo Shu Research Institute, 2003.
Link: Jodo Shu Research Institute



Early 11th CENTURY:

" - - - Here in the excitement of the coming fête were assembled several young nobles, in addition to Genji himself. Some practised dancing, others music, the sound of which echoed everywhere around. A large hichiriki and a shakuhachi were blown with the utmost vigor. Even large drums were rolled upon a balcony and beaten with a will. - - - "

     Murasaki Shikibu in 'Genji Monogatari', c. 1000-1020. Chapt. VI:
     "Saffron Flower". Trsl. by Suematsu Kenchō, 1977.



- ZEN no FUE

Late 12th CENTURY - The ZEN MONK KAKUA 覺阿 PLAYING a FLUTE:

"In an old Zen story it has been said that a certain monk named Kakua was asked to appear before the Emperor and explain the essence of Zen. Kakua arrived at the court and stood quietly before the Emperor and all his esteemed advisors and courtesans who had all gathered to hear this renowned teacher. After standing for a long period in silence, during which time the court grew agitated, Kakua removed a bamboo flute from the folds of his robe, blew one short single tone, bowed politely and left. He returned to the mountains where he was seldom heard from again."

     Quotation from Stan Richardson's web page
     www.stanrichardson.com/article_1.html.


Important note: This anecdote is apocryphal!

- - -
嘉應帝聞阿禪行召問宗要。
阿横一笛吹之應制。
時機未稔君臣莫測。
惜哉化行不聞乎。


" - - - In the Kaō Period [1169-1171] the Emperor [Takakura, r. 1168-1180] heard of [Kaku-]a's Zen practice. [He] summoned [the monk to the court] and inquired about the essentials of the sect.
[Kaku-]a - [who by his] side [was carrying] a flute - blew it in response to the Imperial command.
The times not yet being ripe, the Emperor and his retainers did not fathom [the essence of Kakua's teaching].
Regretful indeed! [Kakua] left and was not heard from [again], was he?"

     This story about the Rinzai Zen monk Kakua, b. 1142, has been
     preserved in the 'Genkō shakusho', the oldest extant account of
     Buddhism in Japan written by the Rinzai monk Kokan Shiren,
     1278-1346, completed in the second year of the Genkō Period: 1322.
     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2010.

     Although the story is apocryphal - the incident probably never
     took place - at least some facts about Kakua's life are known:
     Born in 1142, Kakua first studied Tendai Buddhism on Mt. Hiei.
     Having heard of the influence of Ch'an in China, however, in 1171
     he went to the mainland to become a disciple of Hsia-t'ang Hui-yüan,
     1103-1176, at the temple Ling-yin-ssu in Hang-chou, S. China.
     Hui-yüan's master was the famous Yüan-wu K'o-ch'in, 1063-1135.
     Receiving his master's Dharma seal, 'inka', in 1175, Kakua returned
     to Japan and spent the remainder of this life as a recluse on Mt. Hiei.

     Do note that Kakua is recorded to have played a 'fue' 一笛,
     most probably a transverse flute - not a shakuhachi.
     Besides, there is a discrepancy between the dates:
     The Kaō Period ended in 1171 and was succeeded by
     the Shōan, 1171-1175, and Angen, 1175-1177, periods.
     Kakua returned from China only in 1175, so ...

     References: Kraft, 1997, p. 49; Dumoulin, 2005, p. 7;
     Baroni, 2002, p. 173; Zengaku Jiten, p. 170.
     The complete entry about Kakua in the 'Genkō shakusho' can be
     found here (PDF): Kakua entry in the 'Genkō shakusho', 1322



Link to the next page: Japan 2 • 1233-1477
Link to the previous page: China 2 • A.D. 500 ...


List of references:

Sonja Arntzen, translator: Ikkyū and the Crazy cloud anthology,
     a Zen poet of Medieval Japan. Foreword by Shūichi Katō.
     University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1986.
Baroni, Helen Josephine: The illustrated encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism.
     The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 2002.
Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Printed Matter Press, Tokyo, 2008.
     Available at www.shakuhachi.com.
Steven D. Carter: 'Chats with the Master:
     Selections from "Kenzai Zōdan".'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001),
     pp. 295-347.
Max Deeg: 'Komusō and "Shakuhachi Zen". From Historical Legitimation
      to the Spiritualisation of a Buddhist denomination in the Edo Period.'
      In: 'Japanese Religions', Vol. 32 (1 & 2): pp. 7-38, 2007.
Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 2: Japan.
      Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
      World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.
Gunsho Ruijū, Vol. 28. First published in 1733 by Hanawa Hokiichi.
     Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1933.
Eta Harich-Schneider: A History of Japanese Music.
     Oxford University Press, London, 1973.
Carolyn Martha Haynes: Parody in the maikyōgen
     and the monogurui kyōgen. Ph.D. thesis.
     Cornell University, 1988. Pages 102-131 & 268-271.
     Available online at https://secure.umi.com
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Frank Hoff: Song, Dance and Storytelling: Aspects of the
     Performing Arts in Japan.
     Cornell East Asia Series Number 15, 1978.
Victor Sōgen Hori: Zen Sand. The Book of Capping Phrases for Kōan Practice.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2003.
H. Mack Horton: The Journal of Sōchō.
     Translated and annotated by H. Mack Horton.
     Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2002.
Ide Yukio: 'Chūse shakuhachi tsuikō'.
     In: 'Research reports of the Kōchi University. Humanities'.
     Vol. 41, 1-10, Kōchi, 1992-12-27.
     The article may be downloaded from this location:
     Kōchi University
Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū.
     Facsimile of a late 15th century manuscript.
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Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū, Kyōunshishū, Jikaishū.
     Rev. & annotated by Nakamura Tamaki.
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     ("Setsuyōshū in five versions rearranged and compared").
     Tokyo, 1974. 2 volumes.
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     Ph.D. thesis, University of Sidney, 1992.
     Available online at: www.rileylee.net/thesis.html.
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     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at www.shakuhachi.com.
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     Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
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     www.shakuhachi.com
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     from this location: www.archive.org
     - Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library, University of Toronto

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     Available online at: www.links.jstor.org
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     Tokyo, 1962.

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