Shakuhachi



禅尺八 真理研究 ホームページ

The Zen Shakuhachi Truth Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History & Ideology in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions

Highlighted Pictures

Highlighted Quotations

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Overview:

 •  India
 •  China
 •  Japan
 •  The West

To be - or not to be:
     a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

The Source Collections

The Written Sources

1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise

The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources

1614: The Keichō kemmon-shū

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Evidence

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis

1640s?: The Hotoke-gotoba Evidence

1646: Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi Legend

The Early Komusō Texts

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1664: Shichiku shoshinshū

1677: The Empō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance


1678: The Empō 5, 12th Month
     Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance


1694: Engetsu's Honsoku deshi ...

1703 & 1705: The Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji Interrelationship


1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki

1735: Myōan-ji's Kyorei-zan engi ...

1740?: Keichō no okitegaki -
     Existing Reprint Versions


1795: Kyotaku denki kokujikai

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō

1848: Bakufu Government Decree
     re-administrating the "Fuke Sect"


1871: Bakufu Government Decree
     bans & dissolves the "Fuke Sect"


1890 ... The Legacy of Higuchi Taizan

1930s: Uramoto Setchō Credo

1970s: Myōan Taizan-ha Thought & Credos

Honkyoku Music History
     Ascetic Shakuhachi Titles


Miyagawa Nyozan's Honkyoku 'Ajikan'

Myōan Taizan-ha Notation

Literature

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info




'Fuke-sō/Komosō' in Ryūmon bunko no Setsuyōshū

'Fukesō' = 'Komosō'
c. 1560?


Chronology

JAPAN 4 • 1560-1614

India
China 1 •
6000 B.C.-A.D. 500
China 2 • A.D. 500 ...
Japan 1 • 600-1233
Japan 2 • 1233-1477
Japan 3 • 1477-1560
Japan 4 • 1560-1614
Japan 5 • 1614-1664
Japan 6 • 1664-1767
Japan 7 • 1767-1883
Japan 8 • 1883 ...
The West • 1298 ...












A list of references is included at page bottom.
A complete bibliography can be found on this separate webpage: "Literature".



1560-1614 - THE AGE of the LATE KOMOSŌ: THE FUKE-SŌ

月次風俗図屏風 - TSUKINAMI FŪZOKU-ZU BYŌBU
"Screen with Genre Scenes of the Twelve Months"

Komosō playing the hitoyogiri in a street

Komosō playing a 'hitoyogiri' in a street (center)
Detail of section 4 of the folding screen
'Tsukinami fūzoku-zu byōbu'
"Screen with Genre Scenes of the Twelve Months"
Anonymous, late Muromachi Period (2nd half of 16th century). Tokyo National Museum


Tsukinami fūzoku-zu byōbu full view

Komosō playing the hitoyogiri in a street, close-up

Do we actually see the komosō above wearing a long sword, possibly made of wood (?),
the tip of which is protruding from his left side, appearing just beneath the bed roll that he is carrying on his back?

Link to an online, inter-active website presenting the complete screen:
Tokyo National Museum - E-Museum online




普化僧 - FUKE-SŌ

No later than 1550-1560 - KUROMOTO-BON SETSUYŌSHŪ



'Fuke-sō/Komosō' in Ryūmon bunko no Setsuyōshū     'Setsuyōshū, title

Details from the 'Ryūmon bunko no Setsuyōshū'
Library of Nara Women's University - date unclear


When, approximately, did the komosō of medieval Japan adopt Fuke Zenji as their idol of shakuhachi asceticism?
A few late Muromachi Period versions of the popular dictionary Setsuyōshū", "Economical Collection" or "Collection [of Words] for Everyday Use", do actually present noteworthy evidence in that respect:


'Fuke-sō' & 'Komosō' in the Setsuyōshū

Readings for the kanji 'Komo-sō' and 'Fu-ke(-sō)'
in three different early versions of the 'Setsuyōshū'
- second half of the 16th century


In their comparative study of various early versions of the Setsuyōshū, Kamei Takashi and Takaha Gorō (1974) presents the table shown above (Vol. 1, p. 727):

1: Kuromoto-bon Setsuyōshū, c. 1550-1560.
The kana reading shown for both the kanji komo-sō and that of fu-ke is:
'ko+mo+so+u' - alt.: 'ko+mo'.

2: Tenshō jūhachinen-bon Setsuyōshū, Tenshō 18, 1590.
The kana reading shown for the kanji fu-ke-sō is:
'ko+mo+zo+u'.

3: Manjūya-shū Setsuyōshū, Keichō Period, 1596-1615.
The kana reading shown for the kanji komo-sō is:
'ko+mo+zo+u'.

Read more about the Setsuyōshū here: Wikipedia: Setsuyōshū

Link to the Nara Women's University Library manuscript database:
Ryūmon bunko no Setsuyōshū, HTML



1565-1576


Itinerant monk playing a vertical flute on a bridge

Itinerant monk (?) playing a vertical flute on a bridge
Detail of the folding screen 'Takao kanpu-zu byōbu'
By Kano Hideyori, act. 1565-1576. Tokyo National Museum


Full view of the Takao kanpu-zu screen




1560: Oda Nobunaga begins to eliminate his daimyō enimies.
The Catholic Father Caspar Vilela makes Kyōto a center of Christian missionary work.

1568: Nobunaga takes control over Kyōto and soon breaks the resistance of the Buddhist monasteries.

1573: Nobunaga drives Shōgun Yoshiaki out of Kyōto, bringing an end to the Ashikaga Shōgunate.



1574 - RAKU-CHŪ RAKU-GAI ZU - Uesugi-bon edition

Two komosō in Kyōto

Komosō playing a vertical flute in a Kyōto street
Detail of the folding screen 'Raku-chū raku-gai zu byōbu',
"Pictures from In and Around the Capital",
Uesugi-bon edition. Commissioned by Oda Nobunaga.
The Yonezawa City Uesugi Museum, Yamagata Prefecture





1575: At the Battle of Nagashino, Nobunaga's troops are the first to use firearms on a large scale.

1582: Nobunaga dies and his general Toyotomi Hideyoshi gains control. The are now about 200 Christian churches and around 150.000 Christian converts in Japan.

1582: A Japanese delegation is dispatched to visit the Pope in Rome.

1583: Toyotomi Hideyoshi commences the construction of the grand Castle of Ōsaka.

1584: Hideyoshi occupies Kyōto and enters an alliance with the powerful Tokugawa Ieyasu.

1585: Hideyoshi brings Shikoku under control and becomes Imperial regent, Kampaku.

1587: Hideyoshi becomes Prime minister, Dajōdaijin of Japan and issues an edict forbidding Christianity and orders all missionaries to leave Japan.

1588: Hideyoshi issues the "sword hunt" order to eliminate the otherwise potential risk of future peasant and warrior monk revolts.

1590: Hideyoshi overpowers the Hōjō Clan in the Kantō region (present-day Tōkyō region) and is now in control of all of Japan.

1590: The Japanese delegation to Rome, dispatched in 1582, returns to Japan.

1591: Hideyoshi issues a three-article law concerning social status: Warrior, farmer, artisan and merchant classes are firmly fixed.
Hideyoshi orders the renowned tea master Sen no Rikyū to commit suicide.




尺八の一節切 - SHAKUHACHI no HITOYOGIRI

1592-1615 - Bunroku & Keichō Periods

POEM in the RYŪTATSU BUSHI (RYŪTATSU KOUTA):

尺八の
ひとよぎりこそ
音もよけれ、
君とひとよは
寝も足らぬ。


"The tones of the shakuhachi 'hitoyogiri'
     may satisfy for one night,
But sleeping with you just one night is not enough."

     Trsl. by Blasdel/Kamisangō, 1988/2008.
     This is the earliest known written source in which
     the term 'hitoyogiri' appears.
     Text in Japanese from Nakatsuka, 1979, p. 67.





Old Edo Period hitoyogiri shakuhachi

Old Edo Period (1603-1867) hitoyogiri shakuhachi.
Makers unknown. In: Kikan Hōgaku 5, 1975.



1592-1593: Toyotomi Hideyoshi sends troops to invade Korea with the ultimate goal of conquering the entire Eastasian mainland.

1593: Korean movable type printing equipment is brought back to Japan by Hideyoshi's troops.

1593: The Portuguese Franciscan Fr. Pedro Bautista arrives in Japan which soon causes serious conflicts with the Jesuits.

1596: The "San Felipe Incident". Hideyoshi sentences to death 26 Christians on a list of Kyōto Christians drawn up by Ishida Mitsunari.



1597

The Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan

"The Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan"
Painting by unnamed Japanese artist, probably early 17th century

On February 5, 1597, 26 Christians - missionaries and Japanese followers alike - were crucified at Nishizaka in Nagasaki,
on the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, then the absolute ruler of Japan.




1597-1598: Toyotomi Hideyoshi's second invasion of Korea, this time primarily as a retaliatory offensive against the Koreans.

1598: Hideyoshi dies. The remaining Japanese troops of the second Korea invasion are withdrawn.

1600: Tokugawa Ieyasu, Hideyoshi's trusted ally, having first put down a renewed rebellion of the daimyō clans, defeats the Ishida Clan and its "Western allies" in the battle at Sekigahara, thus gaining control of the entire country.

1600: English pilot Will Adams lands in Japan.

1603: Ieyasu receives the title of Shōgun, Superior General, from Emperor Go-Yōzei and establishes his headquarters, the Tokugawa Bakufu, in a new capital named Edo - present-day Tōkyō.
By this time an estimate of 87 daimyō families have been completely eradicated.

1607: The Neo-Confucian scholar Hayashi Razan, 1583-1657, is appointed political advisor to the second shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada (in office 1605–1623). Neo-Confucianism is now the official "state ideology" in Japan.



短笛秘伝譜 - TANTEKI HIDEN-FU

1608 - "Secretly Transmitted Notations for the Short Flute"

The Tanteki hiden-fu, written by Ōmori Sōkun in 1608, features notations for a total of 74 pieces for the "short flute", the tanteki.
This is the oldest surviving example of the socalled fu - ho - u katakana notation system which was later adopted by players of the Fuke Shakuhachi tradition.


'Hitoyogiri' allegedly once owned by Ōmori Sōkun, 1570-1625

'Hitoyogiri' allegedly once owned by Ōmori Sōkun, 1570-1625
In: Kikan Hōgaku 5, 1975




1612: Ieyasu outlaws the Christian faith in all territories under direct control of the Bakufu.

1613: All Christian churches in Kyōto and Nagasaki are destroyed and the clergy arrested.

1614, January 27: Tokugawa Ieyasu issues an edict completely prohibiting Christianity in Japan. Attached to the edict are 15 rules for the guidance of the Buddhist priesthood in securing its enforcement, for instance,
" --- everyone must become a member of one or another of the principal Buddhist sects, the head of the family being responsible for the choice thereof."

     Source: C.R. Boxer, 1993, pp. 318-319.

Acc. to Wikipedia.org, "Between 1553 and 1620, eighty-six Daimyōs were officially baptized, and many more were sympathetic to the Christians."
Read more here: Wikipedia.org: Kirishitan



Link to the next page: Japan 5 • 1614-1664
Link to the previous page: Japan 3 • 1477-1560


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