Sitemap - All Menu Items List
Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus
About this Research Project
Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions
The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
& the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
- the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
& the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative
The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax
To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?
1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
& the Temple Patron Household System
Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
and the Realization of The Non-Dual
- Highlighted Quotations
Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names
Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends
Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera
The Source Collections
The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview
Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Panorama
• INDIA - 1 web page
• CHINA - 2 web pages
• JAPAN - 8 web pages
• The WEST - 1 web page
Research Cases of Particular Significance,
Real Importance & Special Concern
ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"
c. 1450 to c. 1550
1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami
1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto
1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls
1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise
ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ
c. 1550 to c. 1628?
The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources
1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries
1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City
1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters
1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
with a Wandering Fuke-komosō
1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū
1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo
ERA of the KOMUSŌ
"Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"
c. 1628? to 1871
The Early Komusō-related Texts
- from c. 1628? to c. 1750
1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?
1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers
c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2"
1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?
c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document
1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
"Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu
1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
"The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku
1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy
The Kyōto/Kansai Sources
1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed
1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise
c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji
The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources
1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678
1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
& Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji
1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples
1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship
1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
& Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
and Early 'Honkyoku' History
1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"
1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
The Many Different All Fabricated Versions
1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō
1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book
1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book
1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts
The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'
Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives
1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY
1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia
1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism
1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"
Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.
1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws
2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN
1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto
1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'
1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"
Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"
The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan
3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST
1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
Written and Published in Western Languages
Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
published in the West / Outside of Japan
including the Internet / WWW
- The Translators
Literature / References
Profile / Bio / CV
'Fukesō' = 'Komosō'
JAPAN 4 • 1560-1614
A list of references is included at page bottom.
A complete bibliography can be found on this separate webpage: "Literature".
1560-1614 - THE AGE of the LATE KOMOSŌ: THE FUKE-SŌ
月次風俗図屏風 - TSUKINAMI FŪZOKU-ZU BYŌBU
"Screen with Genre Scenes of the Twelve Months"
Komosō playing a 'hitoyogiri' in a street (center)
Detail of section 4 of the folding screen
'Tsukinami fūzoku-zu byōbu'
"Screen with Genre Scenes of the Twelve Months"
Anonymous, late Muromachi Period (2nd half of 16th century). Tokyo National Museum
Do we actually see the komosō above wearing a long sword, possibly made of wood (?),
the tip of which is protruding from his left side, appearing just beneath the bed roll that he is carrying on his back?
Link to an online, inter-active website presenting the complete screen:
Tokyo National Museum - E-Museum online
普化僧 - FUKE-SŌ synonymous with KOMOSŌ
節用集 - SETSUYŌSHŪ DICTIONARY VERSIONS: Guides to Character Readings
Details from the 'Ryūmon bunko no Setsuyōshū'
Library of Nara Women's University - precise date unclear
When, approximately, did the komosō of Medieval Japan adopt Fuke Zenji as their idol of shakuhachi asceticism?
A few late Muromachi Period versions of the popular dictionary Setsuyōshū", "Economical Collection" or "Collection [of Words] for Everyday Use",
do actually present noteworthy evidence in that respect:
Readings for the kanji 'Komo-sō' and 'Fu-ke(-sō)'
in three different early versions of the 'Setsuyōshū'
- second half of the 16th century
In their comparative study of various early versions of the Setsuyōshū, Kamei Takashi and Takaha Gorō (1974) presents the table shown above (Vol. 1, p. 727):
1: Kuromoto-bon Setsuyōshū, c. 1550-1560.
The kana reading shown for both the kanji komo-sō and that of fu-ke is:
'ko+mo+so+u' - alt.: 'ko+mo'.
2: Tenshō jūhachinen-bon Setsuyōshū, Tenshō 18, 1590.
The kana reading shown for the kanji fu-ke-sō is:
3: Manjūya-shū Setsuyōshū, Keichō Period, 1596-1615.
The kana reading shown for the kanji komo-sō is:
Read more about the Setsuyōshū here: Wikipedia: Setsuyōshū
Link to the Nara Women's University Library manuscript database:
Ryūmon bunko no Setsuyōshū
Itinerant monk (?) playing a vertical flute on a bridge
Detail of the folding screen 'Takao kanpu-zu byōbu'
By Kano Hideyori, act. 1565-1576. Tokyo National Museum
1560: Oda Nobunaga begins to eliminate his daimyō enimies.
One of the Jesuit missionaries meets with shōgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru in Kyōto. Yoshiteru issues orders that the missionaries are to be well treated and not taxed, and are authorized to work in Kyōto. By this time there are about 12 missionaries in Japan, most living and working on Kyūshū.
The Catholic Father Caspar Vilela makes Kyōto a center of Christian missionary work.
1566: The emperor, under pressure from the Buddhists, issues an order expelling Christian missionaries from Kyōto. They flee to
Kyūshū and Sakai.
1569: After a meeting with Nobunaga and Yoshiaki in Kyôto, Jesuit missionaries are allowed back in the capital to preach.
1568: Nobunaga takes control over Kyōto and soon breaks the resistance of the Buddhist monasteries.
1573: Nobunaga drives Shōgun Yoshiaki out of Kyōto, bringing an end to the Ashikaga Shōgunate.
1574 - RAKU-CHŪ RAKU-GAI ZU - Uesugi-bon edition
Komosō playing a vertical flute in a Kyōto street
Detail of the folding screen 'Raku-chū raku-gai zu byōbu',
"Pictures from In and Around the Capital",
Uesugi-bon edition. Commissioned by Oda Nobunaga.
The Yonezawa City Uesugi Museum, Yamagata Prefecture
1575: At the Battle of Nagashino, Nobunaga's troops are the first to use firearms: muskets, on a large scale - weaponry introduced in Japan by European merchants and missionaries.
1582: Nobunaga dies and his general Toyotomi Hideyoshi gains control. The are now about 200 Christian churches and around 150.000 Christian converts in Japan.
1582: A Japanese delegation is dispatched to visit the Pope in Rome.
1583: Toyotomi Hideyoshi commences the construction of the grand Castle of Ōsaka.
1584: A Spanish trading ship, blown off course in a storm, enters Hirado. Because he is jealous of Nagasaki's monopoly with Protuguese traders and he dislikes the Jesuits, Matsuura, the daimyō there, welcomes it and agrees to receive other Spanish traders and non-Jesuit missionaries in Hirado if they wish to come.
1584: Hideyoshi occupies Kyōto and enters an alliance with the powerful Tokugawa Ieyasu.
1585: Hideyoshi brings Shikoku under control and becomes Imperial regent, Kanpaku.
1587: Hideyoshi becomes Prime minister, Dajōdaijin of Japan and issues an edict forbidding Christianity and orders all missionaries to leave Japan.
1588: Hideyoshi issues the "sword hunt" order to eliminate the otherwise potential risk of future peasant and warrior monk revolts.
1590: Hideyoshi overpowers the Hōjō Clan in the Kantō region (present-day Tōkyō region) and is now in control of all of Japan.
1590: The Japanese delegation to Rome, dispatched in 1582, returns to Japan.
Late 1590: Hideyoshi orders the a national census to be taken. After they begin to appear in the census figures, Hideyoshi orders the expulsion of all rônin from towns and villages in which they did no farm work or military service.
1591: Hideyoshi issues a three-article law concerning social status: Warrior, farmer, artisan and merchant classes are firmly fixed.
Hideyoshi orders the renowned tea master Sen no Rikyū to commit suicide.
節切 - SHAKUHACHI no HITOYOGIRI
1592-1615 - Bunroku & Keichō Periods
POEM in the RYŪTATSU BUSHI (RYŪTATSU KOUTA):
"The tones of the shakuhachi 'hitoyogiri'
may satisfy for one night,
But sleeping with you just one night is not enough."
Trsl. by Blasdel/Kamisangō, 1988/2008.
This is the earliest known written source in which
the term 'hitoyogiri' appears.
Text in Japanese from Nakatsuka, 1979, p. 67.
Old Edo Period (1603-1867) hitoyogiri shakuhachi.
Makers unknown. In: Kikan Hōgaku 5, 1975.
1592-1593: Toyotomi Hideyoshi sends troops to invade Korea with the ultimate goal of conquering the entire Eastasian mainland.
1593: Korean movable type printing equipment is brought back to Japan by Hideyoshi's troops.
1593: The Portuguese Franciscan Fr. Pedro Bautista arrives in Japan which soon causes serious conflicts with the Jesuits.
1596: The "San Felipe Incident". Read a dramatic online description of this fatal shipwreck event on a sandy beach in Tosa/Kōchi on Shikoku Island that led to the eventual execution of 26 Catholic Christians in Nagasaki:
Kirishitan.com: February 5th: The Dictator Hideyoshi and the 26 Martyrs
The 26 Christian Martyrs in Nagasaki. Painting by Eustaquio Maria de Nenclares, 1862.
Source: WikiPedia: The San Felipe Incident
1597: Hideyoshi sentences to death 26 Christians on a list of Kyōto Christians drawn up by Ishida Mitsunari.
On February 5, 1597, 26 Christians - missionaries and Japanese followers alike -
are crucified at Nishizaka in Nagasaki on the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, then the absolute ruler of Japan.
The 26 Christian Martyrs Memorial Monument, Nagasaki.
1597: Hideyoshi issues an order to expell all christians from the country. (He allows a few to remain to serve the small Portuguese community in Nagasaki.) The vast majority of missionaries go into hiding and never leave. There are an estimated 300,000 converts in the country by this time.
1597-1598: Toyotomi Hideyoshi's second invasion of Korea, this time primarily as a retaliatory offensive against the Koreans.
1598: Hideyoshi dies. The remaining Japanese troops of the second Korea invasion are withdrawn.
1600: Tokugawa Ieyasu, Hideyoshi's trusted ally, having first put down a renewed rebellion of the daimyō clans,
defeats the Ishida Clan and its "Western allies" in the battle at Sekigahara, thus gaining control of the entire country.
1600: English pilot Will Adams lands in Japan.
1603: Ieyasu receives the title of Shōgun, Superior General, from Emperor Go-Yōzei and establishes his headquarters,
the Tokugawa Bakufu, in a new capital named Edo - present-day Tōkyō.
By this time an estimate of 87 daimyō families have been completely eradicated.
1607: The Neo-Confucian scholar Hayashi Razan, 1583-1657, is appointed political advisor to the second shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada (in office 1605–1623).
Neo-Confucianism is now the official "state ideology" in Japan.
短笛秘伝譜 - TANTEKI HIDEN-FU
1608 - "Secretly Transmitted Notations for the Short Flute"
The Tanteki hiden-fu, written by Ōmori Sōkun in 1608, features notations for a total of 74 pieces for the "short flute", the tanteki.
This is the oldest surviving example of the socalled
fu フ -
ho ホ -
u ウ katakana notation system which was later adopted by players of the Fuke Shakuhachi tradition.
'Hitoyogiri' allegedly once owned by Ōmori Sōkun, 1570-1625
In: Kikan Hōgaku 5, 1975
1612: Ieyasu outlaws the Christian faith in all territories under direct control of the Bakufu.
1613: All Christian churches in Kyōto and Nagasaki are destroyed and the clergy arrested.
1614, January 27: Tokugawa Ieyasu issues an edict completely prohibiting Christianity in Japan.
Attached to the edict are 15 rules for the guidance of the Buddhist priesthood in securing its enforcement, for instance,
" --- everyone must become a member of one or another of the principal Buddhist sects, the head of the family being responsible for the choice thereof."
Source: C.R. Boxer, 1993, pp. 318-319.
Acc. to Wikipedia.org, "Between 1553 and 1620, eighty-six Daimyōs were officially baptized, and many more were sympathetic to the Christians."
Read more here: Wikipedia.org: Kirishitan
Link to the next page:
Japan 5 • 1614-1664
Link to the previous page:
Japan 3 • 1477-1560
List of references:
Sonja Arntzen, translator: Ikkyū and the Crazy cloud anthology,
a Zen poet of Medieval Japan. Foreword by Shūichi Katō.
University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1986.
Baroni, Helen Josephine: The illustrated encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism.
The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 2002.
Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
Printed Matter Press, Tokyo, 2008.
Available at www.shakuhachi.com.
C.R. Boxer: The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650.
Carcarnet Press Limited, Manchester, 1993.
First published in 1951 by The University of
California Press & the Cambridge University Press.
Steven D. Carter: 'Chats with the Master:
Selections from "Kenzai Zōdan".'
In: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001),
Max Deeg: 'Komusō and "Shakuhachi Zen". From Historical Legitimation
to the Spiritualisation of a Buddhist denomination in the Edo Period.'
In: 'Japanese Religions', Vol. 32 (1 & 2): pp. 7-38, 2007.
Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 2: Japan.
Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.
Gunsho Ruijū, Vol. 28. First published in 1733 by Hanawa Hokiichi.
Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1933.
Eta Harich-Schneider: A History of Japanese Music.
Oxford University Press, London, 1973.
Carolyn Martha Haynes: Parody in the maikyōgen
and the monogurui kyōgen. Ph.D. thesis.
Cornell University, 1988. Pages 102-131 & 268-271.
Available online at https://secure.umi.com
Cat. no. AAT 8804579.
Frank Hoff: Song, Dance and Storytelling: Aspects of the
Performing Arts in Japan.
Cornell East Asia Series Number 15, 1978.
Victor Sōgen Hori: Zen Sand. The Book of Capping Phrases for Kōan Practice.
University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2003.
H. Mack Horton: The Journal of Sōchō.
Translated and annotated by H. Mack Horton.
Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2002.
Ide Yukio: 'Chūse shakuhachi tsuikō'.
In: 'Research reports of the Kōchi University. Humanities'.
Vol. 41, 1-10, Kōchi, 1992-12-27.
The article may be downloaded from this location: Kōchi University
Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū.
Facsimile of a late 15th century manuscript.
Ed. & publ. by Okumura Jūbei, Kyoto, 1966.
Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū, Kyōunshishū, Jikaishū.
Rev. & annotated by Nakamura Tamaki.
Gendai shichōsha, Tokyo, 1976.
Inagaki Misoshiro, chief editor: Myōan Sanjūnana-sei Tanikita
Muchiku-shū. Tokyo, 1981.
Inoura Yoshinobu & Kawatake Toshio: The Traditional Theatre of Japan.
Kamei Takahashi & Takaha Gorō, compilers and editors:
Gohon taishō kaihen setsuyōshū
("Setsuyōshū in five versions rearranged and compared").
Tokyo, 1974. 2 volumes.
Donald Keene: Essays in Idleness. The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō.
Columbia University Press, 1998.
Kikan hōgaku 5, special issue: 'Shakuhachi no miwaku'.
Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975.
Kiyū Shōran. Comp. by Kitamura Nobuyo (1784-1856), first publ. in 1830.
Reprint by Seikōkan Shuppanbu, Tokyo, 1933.
Koji Ruien. Ruien Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1896-1914. Reduced size reprint ed.
by Jungū Shichō, Tokyo, 1927-1930. Latest edition: Yoshikawa
Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1967-1971. Vol. 9: Section on Religion.
Vols. 32 & 35: Sections on Music.
Koma no Chikazane: Kyōkunshō.
Original work completed in 1233. Publ. in 2 vols. by
Nihon Koten Zenshū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1928.
Kraft, Kenneth: Eloquent Zen: Daito and Early Japanese Zen.
University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992, 1997.
Kurihara Kōta: Shakuhachi Shikō. Chikuyūsha, Tokyo, 1918, 1975.
Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
Ph.D. thesis, University of Sidney, 1992.
Available online at: www.rileylee.net/thesis.html.
Daigan Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga: Foundation of Japanese
Buddhism. Vol. I: The Aristocratic Age. Vol. II: The Mass Move-
ment. Buddhist Books International, Los Angeles, Tokyo,
Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū Shakuhachi Shikan.
Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
Chūō Kōronsha,Tokyo, 1971, 1976.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.
NKBZ 25: Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū, Vol 25. Revised and annotated
by Usuda Jingorō & Shimma Shin'ichi. Tokyo, 1976.
Nihon Kokugo Dai-jiten. Nihon Dai-jiten Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1973-1975.
William N. Porter: The Miscellany of a Japanese Priest.
Being a Translation of Tsure-zure Gusa.
Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, Tokyo, 1914, 1976.
Torsten Olafsson: Kaidō Honsoku, 1628: The Komosō's Fuke
Shakuhachi Credo. On Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi
Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
Purchasable at www.shakuhachi.com.
Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Emptiness and Temporality.
Buddhism and Medieval Japanese Poetics.
Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2008.
Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Murmured Conversations.
A Treatise on Poetry and Buddhism by the Poet-Monk Shinkei.
Stanford University Press, California, 2008.
William Scott Wilson: The Unfettered Mind. Writings of the Zen master
to the Sword Master. Tokyo, New York, San Fransisco, 1986.
Shūhū Yokō, edited by Mori Hikotarō. Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji,
Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.
Suematsu Kenchō: The Genji Monogatari by Murasaki Shikibu.
London, 1882. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, London 1977.
Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Zen and Japanese Culture.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970, 1973.
James H. Sanford: Zen-man Ikkyū.
Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1981.
Takahashi Kūzan: Fukeshū-shi. Sono shakuhachi sōhō no gakuri.
Fukeshū-shi kankōkai, Tokyo, 1979.
Takahashi Tone: Tozan-ryū: An Innovation of the
Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
Florida State University, USA, 1990. Purchasable at:
Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Nihon no dentō, Vol. 7.
Tankōsha, Kyōto, 1968.
Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Performing Arts of Japan
Vol. 5. Transl. from Japanese by Don Kenny.
Walker/Weatherhill, New York & Tokyo, 1971.
Toyohara Sumiaki: Taigenshō (original dated 1512)
1933 edition, 4 vols., edited by Masamune Atsuo
Nihon Koten Zenshu Kankokai, Tokyo, 1933
The entire 1933 edition may be downloaded
from this location:
- Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library, University of Toronto
Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
Available online at:
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi.
Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2002.
Zengaku Jiten, ed. by Jimbo Nyoten & Andō Bun'ei,
Shōbō Genzō Chūkai Zensho Kankōkai,