Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage




Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info




CH'I

'CH'I'
- Breath, Vital Vapour, Life Energy



YIN-YANG

'YIN-YANG'
Jap.: "IN-YŌ"



TAO

'TAO'
By Isshi Bunshu, 1608-1646



Shang Period stone-chime

Shang Period stone-chime
with carved tiger design
Date: c. 1100 BCE



Warring States Period bronze bell

Bronze bell, height 62 cm
Warring States Period
480-222 BCE



Striking the bells

Striking the bells
Detail of a rubbing
of a tomb stone-relief
3rd century BCE



Eastern Han P. cosmological bronze mirror

Reverse side of a bronze mirror
with cosmological symbols
Eastern Han Period
25-221 CE



Set of Chinese pitch-pipes

Set of 12 pitch-pipes - lü-lü
Western Han Period
206 BCE - 8 CE
Date: c. 180 BCE



Western Han Period orchestra

Musicians and jugglers
entertaining court officials
Pottery tomb figures
Western Han Period
206 BCE - 8 CE



'Ch'in' zither player

"Ch'in" zither player
(source unknown)


Chronology

CHINA 1 • 6000 BCE to 500 CE

India
2600 BCE - 800 CE
China 1
6000 BCE - 500 CE
China 2
500 CE ...
Japan 1
600 - 1233
Japan 2
1233 - 1477
Japan 3
1477 - 1560
Japan 4
1560 - 1614
Japan 5
1614 - 1664
Japan 6
1664 - 1767
Japan 7
1767 - 1883
Japan 8
1883 ...
The West
1298 ...












A list of references is included at page bottom.
A complete bibliography can be found on this separate webpage: "Literature".



6000 BCE - THE OLDEST PLAYABLE FLUTES in the WORLD


Ancient bone flutes excavated at Jiahu, China

Ancient bone flutes excavated at Jiahu, Henan Province,
Central China, in 1986


Read more about these remarkable old musical instruments here:
Brookhaven National Laboratory: Bone Flute Found in China
Shakuhachi.com: Article in Nature Magazine 1999
Wikipedia.org: Gudi (instrument)
Icobase: Flutes Aerophones

Listen to sound samples here:
Brookhaven National Laboratory: Wav file 1 (4.2 MB)
Erik the Flute Maker




YIN-YANG, WU-HSING, TAOISM, CONFUCIANISM
     & THE CHINESE SCIENCE OF SOUND



6th CENTURY BCE:

YIN-YANG / IN-YŌ




/ - CH'I / QI - 2nd tone - (Japanese: KI)

Breath; Air; Vital Vapour; Steam; Energy; Essence; Spirit; Mind; Soul; Intention; Heart ...

"In breathing one must proceed as follows:
One holds the breath and it is collected together.
If it is collected it expands.
When it expands it goes down.
When it goes down it becomes quiet.
When is becomes quiet it will solidify.
When it becomes solidifed it will begin to sprout.
After it has sprouted it will grow.
As it grows it will be pulled back again (to the upper regions).
When it has been pulled back it will reach the crown of the head.
Above, it will press against the crown of the head. Below it will press downwards.
Whoever follows this will live; whoever acts contrary to it will die."

     "Chinese inscription on twelve pieces of jade, which may have
     formed part of the knob of a staff. Date: certainly Chou, may be
     as early as the middle of the -6th century."
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.





5th century BCE:


六氣

天有六氣
降生五味
發為五色
徵為五聲


"There are the six ch'i of Heaven.
Their incorporation produces the five flavours;
their blossoming makes the five colours;
they proclaim themselves in the five notes."

     Quoted from the Tso Chuan, 5th century BCE
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.
     Link: http://ctext.org/chun-qiu-zuo-zhuan?searchu=%E5%85%AD%E6%B0%A3




433 BCE


Set of 65 'bian-zhong' (bronze bells) from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng

Set of 65 'bian-zhong' (bronze bells) from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Suizhou, Hubei, China, dated 433 BCE




c. 400 BCE:

五色令人目盲,
五音令人耳聾,
五味令人口爽.


Colour's five hues from the eyes their sight will take;
Music's five notes the ears as deaf can make;
The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste.

     Lao Tzu in Tao Te Ching, c. 400 BCE
     Trsl. by James Legge, 1961. Link: http://ctext.org/dao-de-jing




c. 300 BCE:

且夫失性有五
一曰五色亂目,使目不明
二曰五聲亂耳,使耳不聰
三曰五臭薰鼻,困惾中顙
四曰五味濁口,使口厲爽
五曰趣舍滑心,使性飛揚。
此五者,皆生之害也。


"Now there are five things which produce (in men) the loss of their (proper) nature.
The first is (their fondness for) the five colours, which disorder the eye, and take from it its (proper) clearness of vision;
the second is (their fondness for) the five notes (of music), which disorder the ear and take from it its (proper) power of hearing;
the third is (their fondness for) the five odeurs which penetrate the nostrils, and produce a feeling of distress all over the forehead;
the fourth is (their fondness for) for the five flavours, which deaden the mouth, and pervert its sense of taste;
the fifth is their preferences and dislikes, which unsettle the mind, and cause the nature to go flying about.
These five things are all injurious to the life ... "

     Chuang Tzu, c. 369-286 BCE, in the Chuang Tzu, c. 300 BCE
     Trsl. by James Legge, 1961. Link: http://ctext.org/zhuangzi/heaven-and-earth





a. 300 BCE:

荃者所以在魚,得魚而忘荃
蹄者所以在兔,得兔而忘蹄
言者所以在意,得意而忘言。
吾安得忘言之人而與之言哉?


Fishing-stakes are employed to catch fish;
but when the fish are got, the men forget the stakes.

Snares are employed to catch hares, but when the hares are got,
men forget the snares.

Words are employed to convey ideas;
but when the ideas are apprehended, men forget the words.

Fain would I talk with such a man who has forgot the words!

     Chuang Tzu, c. 369-286 BCE, in the Chuang Tzu, c. 300 BCE
     Trsl. by James Legge, 1961.
     Link: http://ctext.org/zhuangzi/what-comes-from-without



"A basket-trap is for catching fish,
but when one has got the fish,
one need think no more about the basket.

A foot-trap is for catching hares;
but when one has got the hare,
one need think no more about the trap.

Words are for holding ideas,
but when one has got the idea,
one need no longer think about the words.

If only I could find someone who has stopped thinking about words and could have him with me to talk to!"

     Chuang Tzu, c. 369-286 BCE, in the Chuang Tzu, Ch. 26, c. 300 BCE
     Trsl. by Fung Yu-lan, 1948, 1968.



"The fish trap exists because of the fish; once you've gotten the fish, you can forget the trap.

The rabbit snare exists because of the rabbit; once you've gotten the rabbit, you can forget the snare.

Words exist because of meaning; once you've gotten the meaning, you can forget the words.

Where can I find a man who has forgotten words so I can have a word with him?"

     Chuang Tzu, c. 369-286 BCE, in the Chuang Tzu, Ch. 26, c. 300 BCE
     Trsl. by Burton Watson. Link: http://terebess.hu/english/chuangtzu.html






"If Earth pipes, it is with all its apertures. If Man pipes, it is with the collected bamboos."
- - -
"Even the most skillful zither player, if he strikes the shang note he destroys the chio note, if he vibrates the kung note he neglects the chih note. It is better not to strike them at all; then the five notes are complete in themselves."

     Chuang Tzu, c. 369-286 BCE, in the Chuang Tzu, c. 300 BCE
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.





" Anciently, Huang Ti ordered Ling Lun to make pitch-pipes. So Ling Lun, passing through Ta-Hsia towards the west, travelled to the northern slopes of the Juan-yü mountains, and there in the valley of Hsieh-ch'i found bamboos with stems of which the hollow (part) and the thickness (of the walls) were uniform.

Cutting one between the the nodes to a length of 3:9 in., he blew it, and took its fundamental note [kung] to be that of the Huang-chung tube. Blowing again, he said, 'This is good enough', and proceeded to make all the twelve pipes [t'ung].

Then at the foot of the Juan-yü mountain, he listened to the singing of the male and female phoenix and divided the pitch-pipes accordingly (into two groups), the male notes making six and the female also six. In order to bring them together, the Huang-chung fundamental harmonised them.

Indeed the Huang-chung fundamental [kung] is capable of generating the entire (series).

Therefore it is said that the Huang-chung fundamental is the source and root of the male and female pitch-pipes [lü-lü].

(Upon his return) Ling Lun, together with Jung Chiang, was ordered by Huang Ti to cast twelve bells in order to harmonise the five notes, so that splendid music might be made. - - - "

     Quoted from the Lü Shih Ch'un Ch'iu, 239 BCE, by Lü-pu-wei, n.d.
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.
     (Joseph Needham comments: "This is of great interest as showing that
     all the other musical instruments were to be tuned in accordance with
     the pitch of the five notes emitted by the unaltering standard bells.")




Nine Chinese bronze bells

Nine bronze bells tuned in scale
Height from 28,0 to 16,6 cm
First quarter of the 5th century BCE




2nd CENTURY BCE:

"Try tuning musical instruments such as the ch'in or the se. The kung note or the shang note struck upon one lute will be answered by the kung or the shang notes from other stringed instruments. They sound by themselves. This is nothing miraculous, but the Five Notes being in relation; they are what they are according to the numbers (whereby the world is constructed)."

     Tung Chung-shu, 2nd century BCE Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.




Chinese 'se' zither

Chinese 'se' zither used in the ritual music of Ancient China
Excavated at Ma-wang-tui, Eastern Hunan Province
Date: c. 180 BCE (Western Han Period).


"When the human world is well governed and the people are at peace, when the will (of the ruler) is equable and his character correct, then the transforming (influences) of Heaven and Earth operate in a perfect manner, and among the ten thousand things only the finest are produced.
But when the human world is in disorder and the people become perverse, or when the will (of the ruler) is depraved and his character rebellious, then (their) ch'i opposes the transforming (influences) of Heaven and Earth, harming the ch'i (of Yin and Yang) and so generating calamities and disasters."

     Tung Chung-shu, 2nd century BCE, in the Ch'un Ch'iu Fan Lu.
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.



1st CENTURY BCE:

" --- When numbers assume form, they realise themselves in musical sound."

     Ssu-ma Ch'ien, 145-86 BCE, in the Shi Chi, compiled 109-91 BCE
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.




1st-2nd CENTURIES CE


Ceramic figurine of a 'xiao' vertical flute player

Ceramic figurine of a musician playing a 'xiao' ('hsiao') vertical flute, from the Pengshan Tomb of Sichuan, China
Eastern Han Dynasty, 25-220 CE Nanjing Museum, China




2nd CENTURY CE:

"In determining the pitch of bells in antiquity they levelled off their notes by ear. After that when they could go no further they availed themselves of numbers and thereby made their measurements correct.
If the figures of the measurements are correct the notes will also be correct."

     Ts'ai Yung, 133-192 CE,  commenting on the Yüeh Ling.
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.




3rd CENTURY CE:

" (The opening bars of a lute melody are) strong like lofty mountains, or again they resemble heaving waves: broad and generous, majestic and imposing.
Then the tones become more irregular, halting as if in sorrow, and dragging on like rustling garments.
Then again the melody expands, tones rise as bubbling waves, they open up like blossoming flowers.
Having understood the style of the melody, one must observe the rhythm, correctly reproducing the various transitions in tempo, but keeping the right measure. One must shun specious effects, and concentrate on one's play, abiding by the rules, playing on quietly.
Then the tones shall be imposing and expressive, they spread out, vastly expansive. Distinctly and clearly they end, and finally the coda in 'floating tones' echoes faintly the main motif of the melody."

     Quoted from the Ch'in-fu, 'Poetical Essay on the Lute', by the
     Confucian scholar-gentleman Hsi K'ang, 223-263 CE
     Trsl. by R.H. van Gulik, 1941, 1969.



Chinese 'ch'in' zither

Chinese 'ch'in' zither
A treasure of the Hōryū-ji, Nara, Japan. T'ang Period




4th CENTURY CE

"The ch'i associated with wind being correct, the ch'i for each of the twelve months (causes) a sympathetic reaction [ying] (in the pitch-pipes); the pitch-pipes (related serially to the months) never go astray in their serial order."

     Ch'en Tsan, 4th century CE, commenting on the Ch'ien Han Shu.
     Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.



5th CENTURY CE:

"The symbol serves to express an idea,
and it is to be discarded once the idea has been understood.
Words serve to explain thought,
and ought to be silenced once the thoughts have been absorbed.
-  -  -
It is only those who can grasp the fish
and discard the fishing net
that are qualified to seek the truth."

     Tao-sheng, d. 434 CE Trsl. by Fung Yu-lan, 1948, 1968.
     T.O. comment: Tao-sheng studied Buddhism with Kumarajiva,
     344-413, but was also strongly influenced by Taoism. The above
     statement of his refers to a saying in the Chuang Tzu, see above.



T'ang Dynasty, 7th-10th century CE:

"Above every enemy in battle there exists a vapour-colour [ch'i-se].
If the ch'i is strong, the sound (note) is strong. If the note is strong, his host is unyielding.
The pitch-pipe is (the instrument) by which one canalizes (or communicates with) ch'i, and thus may foreknow good or evil fortune."

     Ssu-ma Chen, T'ang Dynasty, 618-906, CE, commenting on the
     Ping Shu, 'Book of War', now lost. Trsl. by Joseph Needham, 1962.



Link to the next page: China 2 • CE 500 ...
Link to the previous page: India
Link to page with more pictures: Picture Gallery


List of references:

Schuyler van R. Cammann: 'Types of Symbols in Chinese Art'.
     In: The American Anthropologist, 'Studies in Chinese Thought',
     Vol. 55, No. 55, Part 2, 1953.
Edmund Capon and William MacQuitty: Princes of Jade.
     Cardinal/Sphere Book, London, 1973.
Cheng Te-k'un: 'Yin-Yang Wu-hsing and Han Art'.
     In: Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 20, 1-2, 1957.
Fung Yu-lan: A Short History of Chinese Philosophy.
     The Free Press, New York & Collier-MacMillan Limited,
     London, 1948, 1968.
R.H. van Gulik: Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute.
     Sophia University, Tokyo, and The Charles E. Tuttle Company,
     Rutland, Tokyo, 1941, 1969.
K'ao Ku (Chinese periodical of archaeology) 1974, Vol. 1.
     K'ao Ku Publishing Co., Beijing, February 1974.
James Legge: The Texts of Taoism.
     Reprinted from Sacred Books of the East, vols. 39 and 40,
     Oxford, 1891. Julian Press, New York, 1961.
Joseph Needham: Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 4.
     Physics and Physical Technology: Sound (Acoustics).
     Cambridge At the University Press, Cambridge, 1962.
Michael Sullivan: The Arts of China. Cardinal/Sphere Books,
     London, 1967, 1973.
William Watson: China. William Watson, London, 1961.
William Watson: The Genius of China. Catalogue printed for the
     exhibition of archaeological finds of the People's Republic of
     China at the Royal Academy, London, Sept. 29, 1973, to Jan. 23, 1974.
     Times Newspapers Ltd., London, 1973.
Wen Wu (Chinese periodical of ancient matters). Special issue
     about the excavations at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan.
     Wen Wu Publishing Co., Beijing, July 1972.

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