Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History, Ideology & Practices in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū History Fabrication Scam



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Highlighted Illustrations


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.


Miscell. Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
     and the Temple Patron Household System


Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
     Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
     - a Factual & Unbiased Chronology


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West


The Source Collections

The Written Sources


Research Cases of Special Significance and Interest:

c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise


The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book


1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis


The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History


1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual ("Empty")
     Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
     The Many Existing Different Versions



1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1795 & 1816: Two Original Komusō
     "Fuke Temple" Lists



1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
     - a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book



1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.

1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia

1848: The Fuke Monk Affair Government
     Proclamation


1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
     and of the Practice of Religious Begging


1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in Kyōto



Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
     Source Examples - Commented Links:

1871 (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


1890-1895 & 1930-1932: The Tokugawa kinrei-kō
     Prohibition Law Source Collection


1892: Suzuki Jisuke a.k.a. Higuchi Taizan's
     Shakuhachi shian Study Book


1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection

1896-1914 & 1967-1971: The Koji ruien
     Source Collection


1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
     About "Fuke Sect"-related Matters


1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
     Self-study Book


1918 & 1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
     Into Shakuhachi History



1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
     Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen



1899 till today: Translations of Source Texts
     in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
     including the Internet/WWW



Literature

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki and Early Honkyoku History

This uniquely important document contains a list of 34 shakuhachi music piece titles, the earliest known of its kind.

尺八伝来記 - Shakuhachi denrai-ki

"Record of the Origin of the Shakuhachi".

Dated Kyōhō 17 - 1732 in the document itself.


Name of alleged author, given in the middle of the text, between the introduction and the list of music titles:
Fusō Sanjin Kakushin, 扶桑散人覚心, The Japanese "Useless" Kakushin.
That piece of information ought of course be taken with more than just a grain of salt.

According to the shakuhachi comprehensive website shakuhachi-genkai.com, edited and webmastered by Katurayama Genkai, the Shakuhachi denrai-ki was related with and possibly produced by the "twin temples" Reihō-ji and Ichigetsu-ji in Edo.

The complete text of the Shakuhachi denraiki is reproduced in Komusō zakki, 虚無僧雑記, an anthology of Edo Period shakuhachi-related texts and pictures that was originally compiled/authored by Okumura Noriyoshi, 奥村得義, who lived from 1793 to 1862.

In 1843-44 (Tenpō 14-15), the scholar and writer Kodera Gyokuchō, 小寺玉晁, 1800-1878 - a retainer of the Owari clan, Nagoya - borrowed and copied the material, then annotated and prepared the work for eventual publication.

However, according to the shakuhachi historian Yatō Osamu, 矢頭治, Komusō zakki may first have been presented in final print as late as in 1871.
Link: Komusō zakki

Only recently, a reprint of the book was re-published by the bookstore Mytown in Nagoya, Japan

Okumura Yoshinori (compiler) & Kodera Gyokuchō (editor):
     Komusō zakki, Komusō Notes.
     Photographic reprint of a no later than 1871 original
     published by the Book store Mytown, Nagoya, 2004.

The shakuhachi music piece title list is reprinted in Nakatsuka 1979, pp. 548-549.


List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the 'Shakuhachi denraiki'.
Source: Nakatsuka 1979, pp. 548-549.



The complete Shakuhachi denrai-ki as reproduced in a reprint of the Komusō zakki, published by the book store Mytown in Nagoya, Japan

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the Shakuhachi denraiki

List of 34 early shakuhachi honkyoku in the 'Shakuhachi denraiki'.
Source: 'Komusō zakki', 虚無僧雑記, possibly quite late Edo Period.


PRELIMINARILY PROPOSED TRANSLATIONS of the MUSIC PIECE TITLES as of March, 2018

'Mukaiji', 'Kokū' & 'Kyorei' are, of course well known 'honkyoku' titles - where as 'Sugo[mori]' could be 'Tsuru no sugomori', although we shall never know for sure.

All the remaining titles are really obscure - difficult to translate and make much sense of today. We have no idea of ascertaining whether the music represented with these titles ever exsited?

Do note that 'kana' characters appearing in brackets are reading suggestions offered by Katurayama Genkai on the above mentioned shakuhachi-genkai.com webpage.

  1: 霧海箎
       Mukaiji - Flute of the Misty Sea

  2: 虚空
       Kokū - Non-dual Space (lit.: Empty Sky)

  3: 虚霊
       Kyorei - Non-dual Spirit (lit.: Empty Spirit)

  4: 巣籠
       Sugo[mori] - Nesting; Resting in the Nest

  5: 律虚霊
       Ritsu Kyorei - Ritsu Scale Kyorei

  6: 鈴虚空
       Rin/Rei Kokū - Bell of Non-dual Space


'Kyorei' pieces, "Non-dual Spirit pieces":

  7: 雲響虚霊
       Unkyō Kyorei - Sound of the Cloud(s) Kyorei

  8: 窪訓虚霊
       A-kin/A-kun Kyorei - Reading/Explaining The Hollow (Non-duality),
      or the sound/letter 'A' Kyorei

  9: 聲廣(声広) 虚霊
       Shōkō/Seikō Kyorei - Spreading out of the Voice Kyorei

10: 葭岡虚霊
       Kakō Kyorei - Reed Hill Kyorei, or Yoshioka Kyorei (place name?)

11: 遏雲虚霊(アツウン)
       Atsu-un Kyorei - Stop the Cloud Kyorei

12: 虹啜虚霊(コウセツ、コウテツ)
       Kō-setsu Kyorei - Sipping the Rainbow Kyorei

13: 翰敬虚霊(カンケイ、ガンキョウ)
       Kankei/Kankyō Kyorei - Writing Brush Reverence Kyorei

14: 落梅虚霊(ラクバイ)
       Raku-bai Kyorei - Fallen Plum Blossom Kyorei

15: 緩端虚霊(カンタン)
       Kantan Kyorei - "Moderate Origin" Kyorei?

16: 遶梁虚霊(ジョウリョウ)
       Jōryō Kyorei - "Surrounding the Bridge Beam" Kyorei?


'Renbo' pieces, "Love and Affection" pieces:

17: 意律戀慕(恋慕)
       I-ritsu Renbo - Thought+Rule Renbo

18: 武田戀慕(恋慕)
       Takeda Renbo - Takeda Renbo

19: 風情戀慕(恋慕)
       Fūjō Renbo - Elegance Renbo

20: 鳴渡戀慕(恋慕)
       Mei-to Renbo - Chirp Delivery Renbo

21: 善也戀慕(恋慕)
       Zen-ya Renbo - Zen-ya Renbo

22: 和霧戀慕(恋慕)
       Wa-mu Renbo - Peaceful Mist Renbo

23: 吟静戀慕(恋慕)
       Ginsei Renbo - Recital Stillness Renbo

24: 縅朧戀慕(恋慕)(イロウ)
       I-rō Renbo - "Frightening Haziness"? Renbo

25: 調音戀慕(恋慕)
       Chō-on Renbo - Pitch+Sound Renbo

26: 諍達戀慕(恋慕)(静達、ショウタツ?)
       Shōtatsu Renbo - "Dispute+Friend" Renbo or "Stillness+Friend" Renbo

27: 了祖戀慕(恋慕)
       Ryō-so Renbo - Understanding+Forefather Renbo

28: 志道戀慕(恋慕)
       Shidō Renbo - The Way of Intention Renbo

29: 情緩戀慕(恋慕)(ジョウカン)
       Jōkan Renbo - Moderation of Compassion Renbo

30: 得秀戀慕(恋慕)
       U-jū Renbo - Acquire Superlativeness Renbo

31: 遊戯戀慕(恋慕)
       Yūgi Renbo - Game/Sports Renbo

32: 總譜(総譜)戀慕(恋慕)(ソウフ、スフ)
       Sōfu/Sofu Renbo - "Collected Music"? Renbo

33: 薄暮盤濤(盤涛)
       Haku-bo Bantō - Twilight Dish+Wave

34: 霊法流
       Reihō/Reipō Ryū/Nagare - Spirit Law Manner,
      i.e. "In the Manner of the Spirit Dharma"?


HISTORICAL HONKYOKU and SHAKUHACHI KYOKU LISTS
researched by the honourable late Prof. Tsukitani Tsuneko, 月渓恒子 (d. 2010).

The Tsukitani Tsuneko shakuhachi kyoku list page 62, top

The Tsukitani Tsuneko shakuhachi kyoku list page 62, bottom

Tsukitani Tsuneko's presentation of surviving shakuhachi
solo music title sources (2000, page 62].
As it can be seen, the Shakuhachi denraiki is the very first and oldest on the list,
number 1 at the top right.


Source:
Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2000.

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