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The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark



About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus

The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions

Highlighted Illustrations

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.

The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama

 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage

Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern

ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550

1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple

1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise


     c. 1550 to c. 1640

The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources

1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters

1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752

c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions

1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.

Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives

1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY


1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection


     1945 ...

1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"

3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...

1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages

Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators

Literature / References


Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

Wave pattern

Wave - or particle?

Japanese Zen sand garden

Detail of Zen sand garden
at Daisen-in, Daitoku-ji, Kyōto
'Standing waves' ...
Early 16th century
Photo: T.O.


List of references for all the research web pages

The bibliography is being continuously updated


Mikael S. Adolphson: The Gates of Power: Monks, Courtiers,
     and Warriors in Premodern Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2000.

Peter Judd Arnesen: The Medieval Japanese Daimyo.
     Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1979

Sonja Arntzen, translator: Ikkyū and the Crazy cloud anthology,
     a Zen poet of Medieval Japan. Foreword by Shūichi Katō.
     University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1986.

Asakura Haruhiko, editor: Jinrin kinmō zu-i, originally published in 1690
     by Makieshi Genzaburō & Atsuo Masamune.
     Reprinted edition by Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1990 & 1994.

James H. Austín: Zen and the Brain:
     Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness.
     MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1998.


Helen Josephine Baroni: Ōbaku Zen. The Emergence of the Third
     Sect of Zen in Tokugawa Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2000.

Helen Josephine Baroni: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism.
     The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 2002.

George M. Beckman: The Making of the Meiji Restoration.
     The Oligarchs and the Constitutional Development of Japan, 1868-1891.
     University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1957.

Robert Neelly Bellah: Tokugawa religion: The cultural roots of modern Japan.
Free Press, 1985.

Donald Paul Berger: 'The Shakuhachi and the Kinko Ryū Notation.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn, pp. 32-72.
     Texas University Press, 1969.

Steen Bille: Corvetten Galathea's Reise omkring Jorden 1845, 46 og 47. Anden Deel,
     Forlagt af Universitetsboghandler C. A. Reítzel,
     Kjöbenhavn, 1850.

Martina Binnig: Die Honkyoku in der Traditionslinie von Itchōken.
     Zum Repertoire des Shakuhachi-Tempels in Fukuoka/Japan.
     Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln. Musikwissenschaft (M.A.)
     Masterarbeit (M.A.) dated and submitted September 28, 2017.

Karen E. Bjerre: 'The Denmark-Japan Society's First 50 Years.'
     In the 50th anniversary book Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008,
     Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Christopher Yohmei Blasdel:; A Shakuhachi Odyssey. The Single Tone:
     A Personal Journey into Shakuhachi Music.

Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Printed Matter Press, Tokyo, 1986, 2008.
     Available at

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 1: General Introduction.
     From the Upanishads to Huineng. The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1960.

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 4: Mumonkan.
     The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1966, 1974.

Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby, Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl, editors.
     50th anniversay book published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Jørn Borup: Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Myōshinji, a living religion.
     Numen Book Series, Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2008.

C.R. Boxer: The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650.
     Carcarnet Press Limited, Manchester, 1993.
     First published in 1951 by The University of
     California Press & the Cambridge University Press.

William Bramsen: Japanese Chronological Tables.
     Printed at the "Seishi Bunsha" office, Tokyo, 1880.


John Cage: Silence - Lectures and Writings.
     Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, Connecticutt, 1961, 1971.

Schuyler van R. Cammann: 'Types of Symbols in Chinese Art.'
     In: The American Anthropologist, 'Studies in Chinese Thought',
     Vol. 55, No. 55, Part 2, 1953.

Edmund Capon and William MacQuitty: Princess of Jade.
     Cardinal/Sphere Book, London, 1973.

Steven D. Carter: 'Chats with the Master: Selections from "Kenzai zōdan".'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 295-347.

Wing-tsit Chan: The Platform Scripture. The Basic Classic of Zen Buddhism.
     St. John's University Press, New York, 1963, 1975.

Cheng Te-k'un: 'Yin-Yang Wu-hsing and Han Art'.
     In: Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 20, 1-2, 1957.

Hubert S.J. Cieslik: 'The Great Martyrdom in Edo, 1623.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica X, 1954, pp. 1-44.
     Link to online PDF file:

Jonathan Clements: Christ's Samurai: The True Story of the Shimabara Rebellion.
     Published by Robinson, Lonbdon, 2016.

Martin Collcutt: Five Mountains. The Rinzai Zen Monastic Institution
     in Medieval Japan.
     Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London, 1981.

Michael S.J. Cooper: They Came to Japan. An Anthology of European Reports
     on Japan, 1543-1640.
     University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1965.

Jean Crasset: The History of the Church of Japan.
     Written originally in French by Monsieur L'Abbe de T.
     and now translated into English by N.N. 2 volumes, 2010.
     Originally published in 1705-1707.

Peter Crossley-Holland: 'Non-Western Music.'
     In: The Pelican History of Music I: Ancient Forms to Polyphony: Japan.
     Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, 1975, pp. 60-69.


Peter N. Dale: The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness.
     First publ. by Croom Helm Ltd., 1986.
     Reprinted by Routledge, London, 1988.

Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008. 50th anniversary celebration book.
     Edited by Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby,
     Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl.
     Published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Kiku Day: Remembrance of Things Past: Creating a repertoire
     for the archaic jinashi shakuhachi.
     PhD from SOAS, University of London, 2010.

Kiku Day: 'The Changes in the Construction of the Jinashi Shakuhachi
     in the late 20th and early 21st Century.'
     In: European Shakuhachi Society Journal, July 1, 2011.

Kiku Day: 'The Effect of Meiji Government Policy on Traditional
     Japanese Music: The case of the shakuhachi.'
     In: 'Nineteenth Century Music Review', Cambridge,
     Volume 10, Issue 02, pp 265-292,
     Cambridge University Press, December 2013.
     Link to online PDF file:

Max Deeg: 'Komusō and "Shakuhachi Zen". From Historical Legitimation
     to the Spiritualisation of a Buddhist denomination in the Edo Period.'
     In: 'Japanese Religions', Vol. 32 (1 & 2): pp. 7-38, 2007.

Bruno Deschênes: Le shakuhachi japonais. Une tradition réinventée.
     Editions L'Harmattan, Paris, 2017.

Bruno Deschênes: 'B Deschenes: Shakuhachi a Reinvented Tradition.'
     English summary of the author's book in French,
     "Le Shakuhachi Japonais", Paris, 2017.
     Link to online PDF version:

John Dougill: In Search of Japan's Hidden Christians.
     A Story of Suppression, Secrecy and Survival.
     Tuttle Publishing, 2012, 2015.

Heinrich Dumoulin: A History of Zen Buddhism.
     Pantheon Books, New York, 1963.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 1: India & China.
     Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
     World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 2: Japan.
     Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
     World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.


George Elison & Bardwell L. Smith, editors:
     Warlords, Artists, and Commoners.
     Japan in the Sixteenth Century.      University Press of Hawaii, 1981.

Sir Charles Elliot: Japanese Buddhism. London, 1935.
     3rd impression, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1964.

Shusaku Endo / Endō Shūsaku: Silence.
     Original Japanese novel published in 1966.
     Peter Owen Publishers, London, 2003, 2007 & 2009.
     English translation first published in 1969
     by Sophia University Press. Tokyo,
     Copyright © by William Johnston, 1969.
     Movie by Martin Cors´se published in 2016.


Louis Frédéric: Japan Encyclopedia.
     Harvard University Press, 2005.

Ingrid Fritsch: Die Solo-Honkyoku der Tozan-Schule: Musik für
     Shakuhachi zwischen Tradition und Moderne Japans.
     In: Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Vol. 4,
     Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1979.

Fujii Joji: Edo jidai no o-fure.
     "Public Proclamations in Edo Period Japan."
     Yamakawa Shuppansha, Tokyo, 2013.

Fung Yu-lan: A Short History of Chinese Philosophy.
     The Free Press, New York & Collier-MacMillan Limited,
     London, 1948, 1968.


Gaishikyoku, editors (Bureau of Un-official History)):
     Meiji yonen fukoku zenshû jû Meiji shinbi.
     Publ by Kitabatake Mohei, Tokyo, 1871.

Gerald Groemer: Street Performers and Society in Urban Japan, 1600-1900:
     The Beggar's Gift.
     (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia), January 2016.

R.H. van Gulik: Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute.
     Sophia University, Tokyo, and The Charles E. Tuttle Company,
     Rutland, Tokyo, 1941, 1969.

Gunsho ruijū, Vol. 28. First published in 1733 by Hanawa Hokiichi.
     Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1933.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Die Shakuhachi der Kinko-Schule.
     In the series 'Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Band 5.
     Bärenreiter - Kassel, Basel, London, 1983.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Shakuhachi. Aspects of History, Practice and
     Teaching. PhD thesis, Wesleyan University, USA, 1974.

Andreas Gutzwiller & Gerald Bennett: 'The world of a single sound:
     basic structure of the music of the japanese flute shakuhachi.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 36-60.


Eta Harich-Schneider: A History of Japanese Music.
     Oxford University Press, London, 1973.

William Harmless: Mystics.
     Oxford University Press, 2008.

Peter Haskel: Bankei Zen. Translations from the Record of Bankei.
     Edited by Yshito Hakeda.
     Grove Press, Inc. New York, 1984.

Hayashi Kenzō: Shōsōin gakki no kenkyū.
     Kazama Shobō, Tōkyō, 1964.

Carolyn Martha Haynes: Parody in the maikyōgen
     and the monogurui kyōgen. Ph.D. thesis.
     Cornell University, USA, 1988.
     Available online at
     Cat. no. AAT 8804579.

Bhikshuni Heng Ch'i, trsl.: The Shurangama Sutra, Vol. III.
     The Buddhist Text Translation Company,
     San Francisco, California, 1980.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in der Kunst des Bogenschiessens.
     Weller, Konstanz, 1948; Barth, München-Planegg, 1951.
     Published in English in 1953. Published in Japanese in 1955.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in the Art of Archery.
     United States, 1953.
     Originally published in German in 1948.

Hirai Tomio: Psychophysiology of Zen
     Igaku Shoin, Tokyo, 1978.

Hirai Tomio: Zen and the Mind. Scientific Approach to Zen Practice.
     Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo, 1978.

Hisamatsu Shin'ichi: Zen and the Fine Arts.
     Kodansha International Ltd.,
     Tokyo, New York & San Fransisco, 1971.

Lewis Hodous and William E. Soothill: A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms:
     with Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index.
     Routledge, 1937, 1970, 1977, 2003.

Frank Hoff: Song, Dance and Storytelling: Aspects of the
     Performing Arts in Japan.
     Cornell East Asia Series Number 15, 1978.

Hori Ichirō: 'On the Concept of Hijiri (Holy Man).'
     In: Numen 5, 2 (April), pp. 128-160; Numen 5, 3 (September), pp. 199-232, 1958.

Victor Sōgen Hori: Zen Sand. The Book of Capping Phrases
     for Kōan Practice.
     Compiled, translated, and annotated by Victor Sōgen Hori.      University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2003.

Gregg W. Howard: 'Musico-religious implications of some
     Buddhist views of sound and music in the Sūrangama Sūtra.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 95-101.

Nam-lin Hur: Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan:
     Buddhism, Anti-Christianity, and the Danka System.
     Harvard East Asian Monographs 282, Harvard University Asia
     Center, Cambridge, Mass. & London, 2007, 550 pages.
     Link to an online introduction to the work:
     "Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan. Table of Contents."


Ide Yukio: 'Chūse shakuhachi tsuikō'.
     In: Research reports of the Kōchi University. Humanities.
     Vol. 41, 1-10, Kōchi, 1992-12-27.

Igarashi Bunzō: 'Hottō Kokushi no denki to densetsu ni tsuite.'
     In the shakuhachi periodical 'Ichi-on jō-butsu 8'
     (Novemder), pp. 66-83, Tōkyō, 1984.

Ikeda Juzan shū: Taizan-fu shūi. Tokyo, 1985.

Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū.
     Facsimile of a late 15th century manuscript.
     Ed. & publ. by Okumura Jūbei, Kyoto, 1966.

Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū, Kyōunshishū, Jikaishū.
     Rev. & annotated by Nakamura Tamaki.
     Gendai shichōsha, Tokyo, 1976.

Imaeda Aishin: Zenshū no rekishi.
     Shibundō, Tokyo, 1962.

Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai, editor:
     Shakuhachi dokushū annai. "A Guide to Shakuhachi Self-study."
     Edited by Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai.
     Publ. by Kokureidō shoten, Tokyo, 1915.

Inagaki Ihaku, Izui Seizan & Takahashi Ryochiku, editors:
     Myōan sanjūnana-sei Tanikita Muchiku-shū.
     Taizan-fu shūi. Tanikita Renzō, Kyoto, 1981.

Inoura Yoshinobu & Kawatake Toshio: The Traditional Theatre of Japan.
     Tokyo, 1981.

Izumi Takeo: Paintings of Bamboo Flutes. A History
     and Genealogy of Shakuhachi Performance.
     Translated from Japanese by Philip Flavin.
     Tōhoku University Press, Sendai, 2016.

Izumi Takeo: Take o fuku hitobito.
     Kakareta shakuhachi suisō no rekishi to keifu.
     "Pictures of People who Blow the Bamboo.
     History and Genealogy of People Blowing the Shakuhachi."
     Tōhoku University Publishing Society, Sendai, 2013.


Joseph Jennes: History of the Catholic Church in Japan,
From its Beginnings to the Early Meiji Era (1549-1873).
     A Short Handbook. 1973.

Alice Harriet Jones: Mental Discipline and Musical Meaning.
     Doctor of Musical Arts thesis, The City University of New York, 2015.

Jinrin kinmō zu-i - see Asakura Haruhiko.

Henry Johnson: The Shakuhachi. Roots and Routes.
     Published by Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2014.


Kazuko Kameda-Mader: 'Shokunin Zukushi-e, "Pictures of People of Various Occupations in Their Workshops" in Early Modern Japan.'
     Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, January 2015, 9 pages.
     Publ. online on, link:
     Shokunin Zukushi-e, "Pictures of People of Various Occupations
     in Their Workshops" in Early Modern Japan

Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi no rekishi."
     In Hōgaku Taikei Vol. 4, pp. 7-16, Tokyo, 1971.

Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi gaku ryakushi:
     suizen no rikai no tame ni". In descriptive notes for
     "Suizen: Chikuho ryū ni miru fuke shakuhachi no keifu."
     Nippon Columbia LP recording KX 7001-3: pp. 9-22, Tokyo, 1974.

K'ao Ku (Chinese periodical of archaeology) 1974, Vol. 1.
     K'ao Ku Publishing Co., Beijing, February 1974.

Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716): Kaempfer's Japan : Tokugawa culture observed
     Edited, translated, and annotated by Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 1999.

Jay Keister: 'The Shakuhachi as Spiritual Tool:
     A Japanese Buddhist Instrument in the West.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2004).

Donald Keene: Essays in Idleness. The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō.
     Columbia University Press, 1998.

Kenneth P. Kirkwood: Renaissance in Japan:
     a cultural survey of the seventeenth century.
     Charles E. Tuttle, 1971.

Kikkawa Eishi: 'Hyōtan namazu to shakuhachi. Shakuhachi ni miru bigaku.'
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, pp. 52-59, Tokyo, 1975.

Kishibe Shigeo: The Traditional Music of Japan.
     Kokusai Bunko Shinkokai, Tokyo, 1966.

Kitahara Ikuya, Masumoto Misao & Matsuda Akira:
     The Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments: The Shakuhachi.
     Ongakusha, Tokyo, 1990.

Kiyū shōran. Comp. by Kitamura Nobuyo (1784-1856), first publ. in 1830.
     Reprint by Seikōkan Shuppanbu, 2 vols., Tokyo, 1933.

Koide Kōhei: Nihon no dentō ongaku.
     Ongaku no tomosha, Tokyo, 1970.

Koji ruien. Ruien kankōkai, editors. Tokyo, 1896-1914, 51 vols.
     Reduced size reprint ed. by Jingū shichō, Tokyo, 1927-1930.
     Latest edition: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1967-1971.

Koma no Chikazane: Kyōkunshō.
     Original work completed in 1233. Publ. in 2 vols. by
     Nihon Koten Zenshū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1928.

Kondō Ichitarō & Charles S. Terry: The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
     by Hokusai. Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1968.

Kenneth Kraft: Eloquent Zen: Daito and Early Japanese Zen.
     University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992, 1997.

Komusō zakki, see Okumura Noriyoshi & Kodera Gyokuchō

Kurihara Kōta: Shakuhachi shikō. Chikuyūsha, Tokyo, 1918, 1975.

Kyotaku denki kokujikai, see Yamamoto Morihide.


Mette Laderriere: Danes in Japan 1868-1940: Aspects of Early Danish-Japanese Contacts.
     Akademisk Forlag, Coipenhagen, 1984.

Riley Kelly Lee: 'FU HO U vs. DO RE MI. The Technology of Notation
     Systems and Implications of Change in the
     Shakuhachi Tradition of Japan.'
     In: Asian Music East and Southeast Asia, 19, 2,
     Spring, 1988/Summer, 1988, pp. 71-81.

Riley Kelly Lee: 'Shakuhachi honkyoku notation:
     Written sources in an oral tradition.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 18-35.

Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
     Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
     PhD thesis, University of Sidney, 1993.
     Available online at:

James Legge: The Texts of Taoism.
     Reprinted from Sacred Books of the East, vols. 39 and 40,
     Oxford, 1891. Julian Press, New York, 1961.

Olof G. Lidin: Tanegashima - The Arrival of Europe in Japan.
     Nordic Institue of Asian Studies Monograph Series, No. 90.
     NJAS Press, Copenhagen, 2002.
Link to online PDF file:

Gunnar Jinmei Linder:
     Deconstructing Tradition in Japanese Music. A Study of Shakuhachi,
     Historical Authenticity and Transmission of Tradition.
     PhD dissertation, Department of Oriental Languages,
     Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012.

Gunnar Jinmei Linder: 'Shakuhachi.'
     Online article c/o the author's website. Link:

Dennis Eugene Lishka: Buddhist Wisdom and Its Expression as Art:
     The Dharma of the Zen Master Takuan.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976. Purchasable at:
     UMI Dissertation Services - Cat. no.: 7708798.

John Daido Loori: The True Dharma Eye.
     Zen Master Dōgen's Three Hundred Kōans.
     Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, 2005.

Lu K'uan Yü: The Secrets of Chinese Meditation.
     Rider & Company, London, 1964, 1975.


Machida Kashō: 'Japanese Music and Drama in the Meiji Period.'
     In Vol. III of Japanese Culture in the Meiji Era, compiled and
     edited by Komiya Toyotaka, translated and adapted by
     Donald Keene & Edward G. Seidensticker.
     Ōbunsha, Tōkyō, 1956, pp. 370-377.

William P. Malm: Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
     1st edition. Tokyo, New York & London, 1959.

William P. Malm: Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
     New edition. Tokyo, New York & London, 2000.

F.A. McClure: The Bamboos. A Fresh Perspective.
     Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 1967.

Matsuda Tomihiro, ed., et al.:
     A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts.
     Nichiren Shoshu International Center, Tokyo, 1983.

Daigan Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga: Foundation of Japanese
     Buddhism. Vol. I: The Aristocratic Age. Vol. II: The Mass Movement.
     Buddhist Books International, Los Angeles, Tokyo, 1974, 1976.

Christian Theodore Mau:
     Situating the Myōan Kyōkai: a study of Suizen and the Fuke shakuhachi.
     PhD Thesis. SOAS, University of London, 2014.
     Link to online version:

Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 1.
     Sussex, England: The International Shakuhachi Society, 1990.

Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 2.
     The International Shakuhachi Society, 2005.

Mikami Sanji: 'Fuke-shū ni tsuite'.
     In: Shigaku zasshi 13, no. 4, 1902, pp. 61-76,
     & Shigaku zasshi 13, no. 5, 1902, pp. 64-82.

Mizukami Tsutomu: Kyochiku no fue. Shakuhachi shikō.
     Tōkyō, 2006.

Michel Mohr: 'Imagining Indian Zen: Tōrei's Commentary on the
     Ta-mo-to-lo ch'an ching and the Rediscovery of
     Early Meditation Techniques during the Tokugawa Era.'
     In: Steven Heine & Dale S. Wright, eds.: Zen Classics.
     Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism.
     Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 2006.

Michel Mohr: 'Zen Buddhism during the Tokugawa period:
     the challenge to go beyond sectarian consciousness.'
     In: Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 21/4, 1994, pp. 341-372.
     Download link:

Mori Hikotarō, editor: Shūhū Yokō.

     Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji,
     Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.

Miura Jōshin: Keichō kenmonshū (1614).
     "Seen and Heard during the Keichō Period."
     Ed. by Nakamaru Kazunori.      Shin jimbutsu jūraisha, Tōkyō.

H. Müller: 'Einige Notitzen über die Japanische Musik.'
     In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur- und
     Völkerkunde Ostasiens, I, fasc. 6, Tōkyō, 1876, pp. ?-?.


Yoichi Nagashima: De dansk-japanske kulturelle forbindelser 1600-1873.
     Museum Tusculanums Forlag, Københavns Universitet,
     København, 2003.

Nakatsuka Chikuzen: 'Fuke-shū no seiritsu.'
     In Sankyoku No. 188, Tokyo, Nov. 1937, pp. 20-31.

Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū shakuhachi shikan.
     Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.

Hubert Nearman: Shōbogenzō. A Trainee's Translation of
     Great Master Dōgen's Spiritual Masterpiece.
     Shasta Abbey Press, California, USA, 2007.

Joseph Needham: Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 4.
     Physics and Physical Technology: Sound (Acoustics).
     Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1962.

Nihon Kokugo Dai-jiten. Nihon Dai-jiten Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1973-1975.

Swami Nikhilananda, trsl.: The Māndūkyopanishad with Gaudapāda's 
     Kārikā and Shankara's Commentary.
     Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama, Mysore, 1936, 1968.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke & Gerald Groemer:
     Edo culture, daily life and diversions in urban Japan, 1600-1868.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honlulu, 1997.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
     Chūō Kōronsha, Tokyo, 1971, 1976.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Azekura Shobō, Tokyo, 1956.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.

NKBZ 25: Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū, Vol 25. Revised and annotated
     by Usuda Jingorō & Shimma Shin'ichi. Tokyo, 1976.

Peter Nosco, editor: Confucianism and Tokugawa Culture.
     Princeton University Press,
     Princeton, New Jersey, 1984.


Jūichi Obata and Takehiko Tesima: 'Further Studies on the Acoustical
     Properties of the Japanese wind Instrument, Syakuhati.'
     In: Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan.
     Tōkyō Imperial University, Faculty of Science, March 1933, pp. 125-134.

Okada Fujio: Komusō no nazo - Suizen no kokoro.
     Tankobon, 2001.

Okumura Yoshinori (compiler) & Kodera Gyokuchō (editor):
     Komusō zakki, Komusō Notes.
     Photographic reprint of a no later than 1871 original
     published by the Book store Mytown, Nagoya, 2004.

Torsten Olafsson: Kaidō Honsoku, 1628: The Komosō's Fuke
     Shakuhachi Credo. On Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
     Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at

Herman Ooms: Tokugawa Ideology. Early Constructs, 1570-1680.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1985.

Ōno Osamu: 'Hottō Kokushi wa Fuke shakuhachi no so ni arazu ka.'
     In: Yura machi no bunkasai 10 (March), pp. 83-100, Yura, 1983.


Edmond Papinot & Terence Barrow: Historical and geographical dictionary of Japan,
     with an introduction to the new ed. by Terence Barrow.
     Tuttle Publishing, Rutland, Vermont, 1989.
     First edition in English translation by Terence Barrow publ. in 1910.

Edmond Papinot: Dictionnaire japonais-francais des noms principaux de
     l'histoire et de la géographie du Japon suivi de
     17 appendices sur les empereurs, shōgun, nengō,
     sectes bouddhistes, provinces, départements, mesures, etc.
     Hongkong, 1899.

Francis T. Piggott: The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan
     with notes ny T.L. Southgate. London, 1893, 1909, 1969.

Edgar W. Pope: 'The Shakuhachi, the Fuke-shū, and the Scholars :
     a historical controversy.'
     In: Journal of Hokusei Gakuen Women's Junior College 36, 31-44,
     Hokusei Gakuen University, Sapporo, 2000.
     Download URL:

William N. Porter: The Miscellany of a Japanese Priest.
     Being a Translation of Tsure-zure Gusa.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, Tokyo, 1914, 1976.


Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Emptiness and Temporality.
     Buddhism and Medieval Japanese Poetics.
     Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2008.

Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Murmured Conversations.
     A Treatise on Poetry and Buddhism by the Poet-Monk Shinkei.
     Stanford University Press, California, 2008.

Wilhelm Rasmussen: Japan.
     Frem/Det Nordiske Forlag, Ernst Bojesen, Copenhagen, 1903.

Kirsten Refsing & Lita Lundquist: Translating Japanese Texts.
     Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009.

Martin P. Regan: Concerto for shakuhachi and 21-string koto:
     A composition, analysis,
     and discussion of issues encountered in cross-cultural
     approaches to music composition. PhD dissertation,
     University of Hawai'i, 2006.

Kurt Reinhard: Chinesische Musik. Erik Rüth Verlag, Eisenach,
     Kassel, 1956.

Edwin O. Reischaur & John K. Fairbank: East Asia. The Great Tradition.      A History of East Asian Civilization, Vol. 1.
     Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass., 1960.

Lauren Nagaryu Rubin: The Shakuhachi and the Didjeridu:
     two case studies of historical iconology, performance practice
     and their relation to avian respiration and song.
     Ph.D. Monash University. Faculty of Arts. School of Music – Conservatorium, 2009.
     Download from:


Ralph Samuelson: Some Aspects of the Kinko-ryū Honkyoku.
     Unpublished MA thesis, Wesleyan University, Middletown (Connecticut), 1971.

James H. Sanford: 'Shakuhachi Zen. The Fukeshū and Komusō.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica XXXII, 4. Sophia University, Tokyo, 1977.

James H. Sanford: Zen-man Ikkyū.
     Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1981.

George Sansom: A History of Japan.
     The Cresset Historical Series, London, 1958-1964.

Ruth Fuller Sasaki, trsl.: The Record of Lin-Chi.
     The Institute for Zen Studies, Kyōto, 1975.

The SAT Daizōkyō Text Database. University of Tokyo.

William Scott Wilson: The Unfettered Mind. Writings of the Zen master
     to the Sword Master. Tokyo, New York, San Fransisco, 1986.

Sekida Katsuki: Zen Training. Methods and Philosophy.
     John Weatherhill, Inc., New York, 1975.

Shakuhachi dokushū annai. "A Guide to Shakuhachi Self-study."
     Edited by Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai.
     Publ. by Kokureidō shoten, Tokyo, 1915.

Shibayama Zenkei: A Flower Does Not Talk.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. 1970, 1975.

Eido Shimano: The Book of Rinzai. The Recorded Sayings
     of Zen Master Rinzai (Linji).
     The Zen Studies Society Press, New York, 2005.

Shōsōin no Gakki (Musical Intruments in the Shōsōin). Edited by
     Shōsōin Office. Authors: Hayashi Kenzō, Kishibe Shigeo, Taki
     Ryōichi & Shiba Sukehiro. Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sha, Tokyo, 1967.

Shūhū Yokō, edited by Mori Hikotarō. Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji,
     Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.

Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper: The Art and Architecture of
     China. Penguin Book, Harmondsworth, 1956, 1968.

Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold: Nippon.
     Leiden, 1832.

George Smith: Ten Weeks in Japan.
     Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, London, 1861.

Henrik H. Sorensen: 'The "Hsin-ming" Attributed to Niu-t'ou Fa-jung.'
     In: Journal of Chinese Philosophy Vol.13, 1986, pp. 101-120.
     Dialogue Publishing Company, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
     Link to online version: Sacred Texts - Buddhism - Zen

Werner Speiser: China. Geist und Gesellschaft. Kunst der Welt series.
     Holle Verlag, Baden-Baden, 1959.

Norman Stanfield: The Kinko-ryū and its San Koten Honkyoku.
     M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1977.

Sarah Renata Strothers:
     Shakuhachi in the United States: Transcending Boundaries and Dichotomies.
     M.A. thesis, Bowling Green State University, Toledo, Ohio, 2010.
     Link to online PDF file:

Suematsu Kenchō: The Genji Monogatari by Murasaki Shikibu.
     London, 1882. Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, London 1977.

Michael Sullivan: The Arts of China. Cardinal/Sphere Books,
     London, 1967, 1973.

Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Essays in Zen Buddhism I, II & III.
     Rider & Company, London, Vol. I: 1950, 1980. Vol. II: 1953, 1980.
     Vol. III: 1953, 1977.

Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Zen and Japanese Culture.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970, 1973.

Henrik Hjort Sørensen - see Henrik H. Sorensen.


Takahashi Kūzan: Fukeshū-shi. Sono shakuhachi sōhō no gakuri.
     Fukeshū-shi kankōkai, Tokyo, 1979.

Takahashi Tone: Tozan-ryū: An Innovation of the
     Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     The Florida State University, 1990. Purchasable at:

Takeda Kyōson: Komusō: sei to zoku no igyōsha-tachi.
     "Komusō: Odd People of the Sacred and the Worldly."
     Sanitsu Shobō, Tokyo, 1997.

Charles E. Tart, editor: Altered States of Awareness. A Book of Readings.
     John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, London, Sidney, Toronto, 1969.

Timothy Teyler: Altered States of Awareness.
    Readings from Scientific American Paperback, June, 1972

Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Nihon no dentō, Vol. 7.
     Tankōsha, Kyōto, 1968.

Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Performing Arts of Japan
     Vol. 5. Transl. from Japanese by Don Kenny.
     Walker/Weatherhill, New York & Tokyo, 1971.

Tokugawa kinreikō.s Originally compiled and eventually published in 1890 (-1895)
     by the Japanese Ministry of Justice (Shihōshō, 1871-1948)
     Link to all volumes present in the National Diet Library:
National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, complete collection

Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, publ. by Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1932-33.
     Section with Fuke Sect related document on pages 106-116, frames 58-63.
     Link to online version: National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, 1932-33

Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, publ. by Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1932-33.
     Section with Fuke Sect related document on pages 106-116, frames 61-66.
     Link to online version:
     National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, 1932-33

Tomimori Kyozan: Myōan Shakuhachi Tsūkai.
     Myōan Kyozan Bōdōyūkai, Tokyo, 1979.

Tonomura Hitomi: 'Forging the Past: Medieval Counterfeit Documents.'
     Monumenta Nipponica 40, 1, 1985, pp. 69-96.

Toyohara Sumiaki: Taigenshō (original dated 1512)
     1933 edition, 4 vols., edited by Masamune Atsuo
     Nihon Koten Zenshu Kankokai, Tokyo, 1933
     The entire 1933 edition may be downloaded
     from this location:
     - Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library, University of Toronto

Paul Yachita Tsuchihashi: Japanese Chronologicqal Tables
     from 601 to 1872 A.D.
     Sophia University Press, Tokyo, 1952.

Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     Link to online PDF file:

Tsukamoto Kodō, editor: Kinko techō / Kyoreizan Myōan-ji bunken.
     Publ. by Komusō kenkyūkai, Hosshin-ji, Tokyo, 1999.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     M.A. thesis, Osaka University of Fine Arts, 1969.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2000.

Tsukitani Tsuneko, Seyama Tōru & Simura Satoshi:
     'The Shakuhachi: The Instrument and its Music,
     Change and Diversification.'
     In: 'Contemporary Music Review', 1994, Vol. 8, Issue 2,
     pp. 103-129. Translated by Riley Kelly Lee.
     Link to free download:

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'The Shakuhachi and its music.' Pages 145-168
     in: The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
     SOAS Musicology Series. 466 pages.
     Publ. by Ashgate Publishing Group, England & USA, 2008.

Royall Tyler, trsl.: Selected Writings of Suzuki Shōsan.
     Cornell University, East Asia Papers, New York, 1977.


Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.

Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2002.

Uramoto Setchō: 'Zen mondō to satori.'
     Essay, 12 pages, publ. by Shunjūsha, 1960.


Burton Watson, trsl.: The Zen Teachings of Master Lin-chi. A trans-
     lation of the Lin-chi Lu. Columbia University Press, 1999.

William Watson: China. William Watson, London, 1961.

William Watson: The Genius of China. Catalogue printed for the
     exhibition of archaeological finds of the People's Republic of
     China at the Royal Academy, London, Sept. 29, 1973, to Jan. 23, 1974.
     Times Newspapers Ltd., London, 1973.

Alan W. Watts: An Outline of Zen Buddhism.
     32 page pamphlet, The Golden Vista Presa, 1932.

Alan W. Watts: Beat Zen Square Zen and Zen.
     City Lights Books, San Francisco, 1959.

Alan W. Watts: The Spirit of Zen.
     A Way of Life, Work and Art in the Far East.
     E.P. Dutton, 1936.

Alan W. Watts: The Way of Zen.
     Pantheon Books, 1957, 1971.

Elliot Weisgarber: 'The Honkyoku of the Kinko-ryū:
     Some Principles of its Organization.'
     In: Ethnomusicology XII, 3 (September), 1968, pp. 313-344.

Wen Wu (Chinese periodical of ancient matters). Special issue
     about the excavations at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan.
     Wen Wu Publishing Co., Beijing, July 1972.
     Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (English language:

David Gordon White, editor: Tantra in Practice.
     Motilal Banarsidass Publisher, Private Limited, Delhi, 2001.
     First Edition: UK, 2000. Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (Japanese language:

Duncan Williams: 'The Purple Robe Incident and the Formation
     of the Early Modern Sōtō Zen Institution.'
     Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 36/1, pp. 27–43,
     Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, Kyoto, 2009.

Wong Wah-Sang: 'The Music of Buddha Nature - Blowing Zen on the Shakuhachi.'
     In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science,
     Vol. 4, No. 8, June 2014, pp. 64-80.
     Link to online PDF:


Yamada Shōji: 'The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery.'
     Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 2001, 28/1-2.
     Link to online PDF file:

Yamaguchi Masayoshi: Shakuhachi-shi gaisetsu.
     Shiryō to tomo ni tadoru shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2005.

Yamamoto Morihide, compiler & author: Kyotaku denki kokujikai.
     Original Kyōto edition published in 1795.
     1925 edition publ. by Rakubundō c/o The National Diet Library.

Yamamoto Morihide, compiler & author: Kyotaku denki kokujikai.
     Modern version edited by Kowata Suigetsu,
     216 pages, Nihon ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1981.

Yamasaki Taikō: Shingon. Japanese Esoteric Buddhism.
     Shambala, Boston & London, 1988.


Zengaku Jiten, ed. by Jinbo Nyoten & Andō Bun'ei,
     Shōbō Genzō Chūkai Zensho Kankōkai,
     Tokyo, 1962.

Juzhong Zhang, Garman Harbottle, Changsui Wang & Zhaochen Kong:
     'Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic
     site in China.'
     In: NATURE, Vol. 401, Num. 6755, pp. 366-368, 23 September 1999.

Reinhard Zöllner: Japanische Zeitrechnung.
     Iudicium Verlag, München, 2003.

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