Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History, Ideology & Practices in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.


Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
     and the Temple Patron Household System


Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
     Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
     - a Factual & Unbiased Chronology


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


A Select Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Names, Terms & Concepts



Highlighted Illustrations


Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West


The Source Collections

The Written Sources


Research Cases of Special Significance:

c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise


The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book


1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis


The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678



1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History


1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
     The Many Existing Different Versions



1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
     - a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book



1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.

1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia

1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
     and of the Practice of Religious Begging


1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
     is Opened at Tōfuku-ji in Kyōto



Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
     Source Examples - Commented Links:

c. 1875?: The Komusō zakki Source Collection

1892: Suzuki Jisuke alias Higuchi Taizan's
     Shakuhachi shian Study Book


1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection

1896-1914: The Koji ruien Source Collection

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
     About Fuke-shū-related Matters


1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
     Self-study Book


1918/1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
     Into Shakuhachi History


1931-32: The Tokugawa kinreikō
     Prohibition Law Collection



1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
     Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen



1899/1910 ... Translations of Source Texts
     in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
     including the Internet/WWW



Literature

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

虚鐸伝記 - Kyotaku denki

"Record of the History of the Imitated (or, False) Bell"

Anonymous, no date. Quite possibly created by the Kyōto Myōan Temple élite during the 1680s.

Source: Complete text reprinted in Nakatsuka 1979, pp. 123-125.

Do note that, composed and issued by the Kyōto Myōan-ji, this document does not mention any "Fuke Sect", Fuke-shū, 普化宗, at all.

Printed with rendering in common classical Japanese in Kyōto in 1795 - see link to a copy of that publication in the National Diet Library, Tōkyō, below.




Direct link to a copy of Kyotaku denki at The National Diet Library, Tōkyō
- go to frame 14 and onwards



寄竹 - KICHIKU - or, YORITAKE?

三虚霊譜 - SAN-KYOREI-FU - The Three "Empty Spirit Notations"

It is well known that the legend of the Kyotaku, the "imitated bell", has, for long, been regarded as a forgery, or more precisely: A fabrication.

There can no more be any doubt that the text was primarily produced for the benefit and strengthened reputation of the Myōan Temple in SE Kyōto.

The monk Ton'o, the alleged author of the text, is however reported to have been active during the late Kan'ei period (1624-1644), and judging from the subject matter of the story, it could although but only theoretically, have been composed already at that time.

It is, in any case, noteworthy, that central elements of the story about Hottō Kokushi, the four devoted men and Kyochiku (formerly Kichiku, in the Kyotaku denki) were in fact in existence in 1735, contained in the Myōan-ji document Kyorei-zan engi narabi-ni sankyorei-fu ben, see below.

- - -

学心学之有日、禅已熟、曲已就、
而告別干張参辞舒州、
而解纜干明州、南宋理宗宝帝祐二年、帰船干本邦。


"Gakushin [i.e.: Kakushin, alias Hottō Kokushi] studied the art of the kyotaku. As the days passed, he went to the heart of Zen philosophy and attained proficiency in the kyotaku;
finally he took leave of San [Kakushin's alleged kyotaku teacher Chōsan] (to return to Japan).
Gakushin left Hsü-Chow for Ming-Chow, where he unmoored his ship.
It was in the second year of the Sung Dynasty that he returned to Japan, where it was the sixth year of Kenchō, in the the reign of Emperor Gofukakasu."

自是学心、或高野山入、或出洛陽城、
逍遊有年、造立一寺干紀州、号西方寺、
而終住干此。


"Thereafter, Gakushin confined himself in a mountain temple at Kōyasan, sometimes visiting the capital (Kyoto).
Years passed, and he founded a Buddhist temple named Saihōji in the province of Kishū [present-day Kōkoku-ji in Wakayama Pref.],
where he established his permanent abode.

- - -

徒中有寄竹者、以禅心殊切、敬師益甚、
学心亦親眤之異干他弟子、
一時学心告之、


"Among his numerous students, there was one called Kichiku. The more earnest he became in his devotion to Zen Buddhism, the more ardent was his admiration for his master.
Gakushin also took a more kindly interest in him than in other students.
One day Gakushin told Kichiku:"

以在宋之時伝 得虚鐸音今尚能調之、
且謂、欲長授干汝面嗣此之伝、
寄竹踊躍拝謝、伝此之音、熟習嗜寿日不置。


"'When I was (studying) in the country of Sung, I was instructed in the kyotaku and I perform on it well even today.
I would like to initiate you in this flute in the hope that, as my successor, you will pass this art on to posterity.'
Kichiku, dancing for joy and expressing his gratitude, received instruction in this music and attained proficiency in the instrument. He took delight in playing it everyday untiringly."

他弟子、国作、理正、法普、宗恕、
四人亦能学此管、世称四居士。


"There were four more students - - Kokusaku, Risei, Hōfu and Sōjo - - who also learned this flute well. They were known to the world under the (collective) title Shikoji ("Four Devoted Men")."
- - -

     Quoted from the 'Kyotaku denki', trsl. by Tsuge Gen'ichi, 1977.
     Printed in Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     The complete translation is available at: www.links.jstor.org




Kyotaku denki, original text in kanbun-a.

Kyotaku denki, original text in kanbun-b.

Kyotaku denki, original text in kanbun-c.

Kyotaku denki, original text in kanbun. Source: Nakatsuka 1979, pp. 123-125.


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