Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History, Ideology & Practices in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.


Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
     and the Temple Patron Household System


Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
     Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
     - a Factual & Unbiased Chronology


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


A Select Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Names, Terms & Concepts



Highlighted Illustrations


Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West


The Source Collections

The Written Sources


Research Cases of Special Significance:

c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise


The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book


1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis


The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678



1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History


1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
     The Many Existing Different Versions



1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
     - a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book



1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.

1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia

1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
     and of the Practice of Religious Begging


1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
     is Opened at Tōfuku-ji in Kyōto



Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
     Source Examples - Commented Links:

c. 1875?: The Komusō zakki Source Collection

1892: Suzuki Jisuke alias Higuchi Taizan's
     Shakuhachi shian Study Book


1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection

1896-1914: The Koji ruien Source Collection

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
     About Fuke-shū-related Matters


1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
     Self-study Book


1918/1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
     Into Shakuhachi History


1931-32: The Tokugawa kinreikō
     Prohibition Law Collection



1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
     Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen



1899/1910 ... Translations of Source Texts
     in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
     including the Internet/WWW



Literature

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Pieces"

虚霊山縁起並ぴに三虚霊譜瓣
Kyorei-zan engi narabi ni sankyorei-fu ben

"Origin of the Myōan-ji and Tradition of the Three Non-Dual Spirit Pieces

Date: Kyōhō 20, 9th month - October, 1735

Authored by Myōan-ji temple chief Kandō Ichiyū, 寛堂一宥, who died in 1738, Genbun 3.  

Reprinted in Nakatsuka, 1979, pp. 133-135.

See a complete online version of this important document on Iida Kyorei's Koshūan shakuhachi research website:
http://www.yo.rim.or.jp/~kosyuuan/kosyuan/iida/iida15.htm

Do note that, composed and issued by the Kyōto Myōan-ji, while this document does actually mention the name Fuke, 普化, 12 times, you see no reference to any "Fuke Sect", Fuke-shū, 普化宗, at all.

無生真 - MU-JŌ-SHIN

Among the many old Fuke Shakuhachi textual sources preserved at the Myōan-ji in Kyōto, one especially fascinating document is entitled
Kyorei-zan engi narabi ni sankyorei-fu ben,

虚霊山縁起並ニ三虚霊譜辯,

"Towards an Understanding of the Origin of the Empty Spirit Mountain [i.e. the Kyōto Myōan-ji] and a Discourse about the Three Empty Spirit Music Pieces [i.e. Mukaiji, Kyorei & Kokū]".

Dated 1735 (Kyōhō 20, 9th month) this hand-scroll bears the signature of Kandō Ichiyū, 寛堂一宥, 18th chief monk in the traditional Myōan-ji lineage, who died in 1738, Genbun 3, 2nd month, 23rd day (Nakatsuka Chikuzen, 1979, pp. 133 & 150).

- - -

Par. 2:
興国開山法灯国師入宋帰国之日、
宋地、国作、宋恕、理正、法普
之四居士随待来干我邦、
皆是風顛漢、而以普化為祖、以尺八為法器、
幽柄鷲峰 谷、尋常弄尺八為遊戯三味、
共旧跡干今号普化谷。


"The founder of the Kōkoku (Temple), Hottō Kokushi, travelled to Sung (China), and on the day of his return (to Japan), four Buddhist laymen of Chinese descent, Kokusaku, Sōjo, Risei and Hōfu, accompanied him to our country.

They were all highly cultured Chinese and with Fuke as their role model [lit. ancestor] and the shakuhachi as implement of the Buddhist Law [hōki], confining [or, secluding] themselves in the valley beneath the Eagle Peak [the mountain where Kōkoku-ji is located], they used to take pleasure in playing the shakuhachi as a way of practicing meditation [sammai].
Today, the site of their old common dwelling place [kyūseki] is called 'The Valley of Fuke'."

Par. 4:
虚竹有投機偈伝、
   一従載断両頭後、
   尺八寸中通古今、
   吹起無生真一曲、
   三千里外絶知音、


"Kyochiku had [or, favoured] a speculative Buddhist verse
which says,

'When one has cut off Dualism,
the essence of the shakuhassun
transcends Past and Present.
That one sound blowing forth
of the True Reality of the Non-born
exceeds the deepest of friendships,
beyond limit.'"

Par. 5:
嘗虚竹在城州宇治、号朗菴主、
命終樹塔於宇治郡五筒庄中、
人呼為普化塚也。


"Once Kyochiku stayed in Uji in Jōshū [mod. Kyōto Prefecture] he called himself 'Rōan the Hermit'.
By the end of his life he erected a five-levelled monument
[a 'gorintō' grave pagoda?] in the vicinity of Uji.
People call it 'The Grave of Fuke'."

Par. 6:
至於第二世明普、居干洛東、
建立虚霊山明暗寺、
於今普化一流相承来也、


"As for Kyochiku's successor Myōfu, when he lived in the East of the capital [Kyōto Higashiyama], he established [lit.: build] the Empty Spirit Mountain Myōan Temple, and so the School [Jap.: ichi-ryū] of Fuke has been preserved till today."

- - -

     The full text is reprinted in Nakatsuka, 1979, pp. 133-135.
     Digitized by Iida Kyōrei c/o Koshūan website
     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2010, 2013.



五輪塔 - GORINTŌ

om gorintō  om gorintō  om gorintō

Gorintō - The Shingon Buddhist five element pagoda
- is a very common type of grave monument in Japan.
The five "rings" represent the Five Buddhist Elements of the Universe:
Earth, Water, Fire, Wind and Space.
The gorintō is believed to possess strong magical powers.





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