About this Research Project
Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus
The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
& the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
- the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
& the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative
The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax
To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?
Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions
1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
& the Temple Patron Household System
Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
and the Realization of The Non-Dual
- Highlighted Quotations
Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names
Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends
Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.
The Source Collections
The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview
Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Panorama
• INDIA - 1 webpage
• CHINA - 2 webpages
• JAPAN - 8 webpages
• The WEST - 1 webpage
Research Cases of Particular Significance,
Real Importance & Special Concern
ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"
c. 1450 to c. 1550
1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami
1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple
1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls
1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise
ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ
c. 1550 to c. 1640
The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources
1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries
1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City
1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters
1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
with a Wandering Fuke-sō
1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo
1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers
c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2"
ERA of the KOMUSŌ
"Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"
c. 1640 to 1871
The Early Komusō-related Texts
- from c. 1640 to c. 1752
c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document
1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
"Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu
1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
"The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku
1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy
The Kyōto/Kansai Sources
1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise
c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji
The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources
1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678
1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
& Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji
1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples
1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship
1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
& Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
and Early Honkyoku History
1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"
1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
The Many Different All Fabricated Versions
1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō
1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book
1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book
1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.
Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
of Shakuhachi Narratives
1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY
1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
The Koji ruien Source Collection
2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN
1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto
1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"
3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST
1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
Written and Published in Western Languages
Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
published in the West / Outside of Japan
including the Internet / WWW
- The Translators
Literature / References
Profile / Bio / CV
1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo
Document dated 1628, March 26th
The amazing Fuke Shakuhachi document Kaidō honsoku was - apparently - created by one or more anonymous komosō mat monks in 1628 (early Edo period).
Although the original document scroll has been reported missing (if not simply stolen!?) from its former owner, the Zen temple Kōkoku-ji in Yura, Wakayama Prefecture,
fortunately, prior to the loss, the text of the document was carefully copied and published, and thus preserved, in a way so as to be studied in rather some detail, even after the alleged disappearance of the original manuscript itself.
The "official" and fully authoritative edition of the Kaidō honsoku document dated 1628 was published in 1938 and 1981 by the Kōkoku Temple in Yura, Wakayama, having been compiled and edited by Mori Hikotarō. Here you see a complete scanning of the very book pages in question:
'Kaidō honsoku' headlines and notes in Mori, 1981, p. 72
'Kaidō honsoku' text in Mori, 1981, p. 73
'Kaidō honsoku' text in Mori, 1981, p. 73
The Kaidō honsoku is available in full reprint in at least these six Japanese publications:
Nakatsuka Chikuzen: 'Fuke-shū no seiritsu.'
In Sankyoku No. 188, Tokyo, Nov. 1937, pp. 20-31.
Mori Hikotarō, editor: Shūhū Yokō.
Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji, Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.
Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū shakuhachi shikan.
Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.
Kowata Suigetsu, editor: Yamamoto Morihide's 'Kyotaku denki kokujikai.'
Modern version published by Nihon ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1981.
Takeda Kyōson: Komusō: sei to zoku no igyōsha-tachi.
Sanitsu Shobō, Tokyo, 1997.
Yamaguchi Masayoshi: Shakuhachi-shi gaisetsu.
Shiryō to tomo ni tadoru shakuhachi no rekishi.
Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2005.
Very early Edo Period (early 17th century) komo-sō,
薦僧/菰僧, style mendicant miyo-giri shakuhachi,
三節切り尺八, flute player
This is a modern Japanese painting depicting a very early 17th century
'komosō', "mat monk" - NotaBene not a 'komusō'!
Website source: blog.zaq.ne.jp/randokku
ENGLISH TRANSLATION of the KAIDŌ HONSOKU
Here follows my translation into English, based on the version which was originally presented in my M.A. thesis in Japanology
and accepted by the University of Copenhagen, Eastasian Institute, in 1987, as well as the Tai Hei Shakuhachi edition of the work
which was published internationally in 2003, by Monty H. Levensom, Taihei Shakuhachi, Willilt, Califormia, USA.
The presentation of the translation has once more been updated as of November 24, 2018: All paragraphs have been renumbered.
The renamed paragraphs "00" &: *0": See notes after the translation
From where does the Komo come?
‘The Dualistic Notion of "Darkness" appears ... ’
Does he come from the Realm of Obscurity?
‘The Dualistic Notion of "Brightness" appears ... '
Does he come from the Realm of Clarity?
Oh, how mysterious is the basket hat that the Komo is wearing on his head!
It is also called the ‘Tengai’.
Oh, how mysterious is the piece of cloth that he carries over his shoulder!
That is the ‘Dots-and-Cross’ patterned curtain in front of the Shintō Dëity and the Bell
String in front of the Buddha, and it is also called the ‘Rainbow Coil’.
Oh, how mysterious is the double-leaf, fine straw mat that he carries on his back!
It represents the Tripartite Climatic Periods and the Five Elements: Earth, Water, Fire,
Wind, and Space.
The first layer signifies the Total Concealment of the Ungraspability of the Three
Existences: Past, Present, and Future.
How mysterious is the case that he carries on his back, inside the rolled up strawmat!
It is also called the ‘Kenkon’ which proclaims the Interrelatedness of Heaven and Earth.
Oh, how mysterious is the net that he has wrapped around the things!
It is called the ‘Prescribed Bag’ for accomplishing an exhaustive roundtrip
through all the provinces.
Oh, how mysterious is the rope with which everything is tied together!
It is also called the ‘Two Concepts of Being and Non-Being’.
Oh, how mysterious is the purse that he carries placed on his chest!
It expresses the Totality of the Human Body. It is also called the Six Internal Organs. It
contains miscellaneous things, their colors being bluish-green, yellow, red, white, and black.
Oh, how mysterious is the bamboo flute that the Komo carries!
The shakuhachi is the principal treasure of the Komo and it represents the Four Seasons,
likened to the four finger holes in the front.
The single finger hole on the back expresses the Clarity of the Enlightened, Adual Mind.
As for the darkness of its interior, that represents the Realm of Jurisdiction of the King of
Hell, Judge of the Dead.
The three nodes represent the Oneness of the Three Bodies, the lower opening the Womb
World, the upper opening the Diamond World, and the crescent-shaped mouthpiece above
teaches the Clarity of Absolute Reality.
The shakuhachi is precious beyond limit.
When the Komo plays in front of a Shintō Dëity, it is to end the Suffering from the Five
Types of Decay and the Three Fevers.
When the Komo plays in front of an image of the Buddha, it is to awaken from the
Drowsiness of Earthly Desires Originating in Illusion.
When the Komo plays for educated persons, he should prolong his breathing in constant
concentration and blow so as to drive away the Mediocre Body Originating in Illusion.
When he plays the shakuhachi for ordinary, uneducated persons, it is to explain all the
Schools of Buddhism as well as performing all of the Buddhist Ceremonies.
If you inquire about the Komo’s place of origin, the answer is:
‘Neither in the Past nor in the Present!’
Or, to put it in the words of Banzan:
‘The Three-fold World is Immaterial!’
Any attempt at answering the question would be just as meaningless as saying ‘the willow
is verdurous, the flower is crimson’!
Instead of a place of origin, the Komo are scattered in the world without such a place to call
And now being deprived of employment anywhere, be it at any of the three barriers of
Akama-ga-seki in the Nagato Province, Ōsaka-no-seki at the [old] capital [Kyōto], or the two checking stations
of Shirakawa in Ōshū, the Komo who abundantly wander the world, to whom Heaven
and Earth have the Same Root and All Creation is One Body, have neither confinements nor
Oh, humbly speaking, how mysterious are the straw sandals that the Komo is wearing!
They represent the proper footwear for the steadfast treading his way [on giant rocks]
in the footprints of Banzan and Sekitō.
It is said in a poem that,
‘When you search, and find in shakuhachi sound your refuge,
is that not indeed the essence of bamboo?’
The competent Komo possesses a magnificent piece of bamboo.
So he may pass through the Five-fold Environments of Karma,
the Komo is observing many precepts
- and therefore he sleeps alone.
The surface has four eyes [or, stitches? - or, the face has four eyes?].
Because the Komo practices celibacy till the end, he shall create a mind of relief and
disconnection in those who listen to his shakuhachi sermons and sweep away the
Drowsiness of Illusion and Mediocrity and bring about Realization.
Another poem has it that,
‘Choosing as one’s hermitage the voice of the shakuhachi
is that not the Spring breeze blowing at Miyagi-no?'
How mysterious, indeed, is the Komo’s staff!
If you are doubtful, Setchō said,
‘White Clouds Everywhere!’
How mysterious, indeed, is the sword that the Komo is carrying!
Even at Banzan’s deathbed Fuke made a somersault over the screen and mattress, it is
The Komosō founder Priest Fuke’s sect has 16 branches:
The Wakazari Branch Sect.
The Inu-yarō Branch Sect in Tsukushi.
The Hokkoku Noki-ha Branch Sect.
The Noki-ha Branch Sect in Chūgoku.
The Sakabayashi Branch Sect in Ise.
The Gokinai Yawata Noki-ha Branch Sect.
The Kagari Branch Sect in Musashi.
The Wakashû Branch Sect in Minō.
The Sara-ha Branch Sect in Jōshū.
The Yoritake Branch Sect in C. Musashi.
The Kinzen Branch Sect in Shimōsa.
The Kogiku-ha Branch Sect in Shimotsuke.
The Tanjaku Yorokobi Branch Sect in Ōshū.
The Umeji Branch Sect in Hitachi.
The Additional Tanjaku Branch in Ōshū.
The Kandan-ki no ha Branch Sect in Hokkoku.
These are the rustic and humble branches.
Boro — ‘He/they who live(s) like the dew’.
Kan’ei 5, Mid-Spring, 21st day.
* Notes to Paragraphs "00" and "0":
The Kaidō honsoku manuscript scroll, as it appears in all of the several known reprints, features one headline - perhaps even two - that according to the book editor Mori Hikotarō) was written "differently" from the rest of the document:
"When Hottō Kokushi returned to his native country, he was accompanied by four Buddhist laymen: Kuo Tsuo. Li Cheng, Tseng Shu & Pao P'u
(in Japanese: Kokusa(ku), Risei, Sōjo and Hōfu)."
"The Fundamental Doctrine of Fuke Shakuhachi Itineracy.
[lit.: "Sea-route basic rules"]
Issued from Yura in the Kii Province."
I am quite convinced that both of these two printred opening sentences must have been added to the original document - or rather, to some or more copies of that - sometime after its actual completion in 1628 and I have therefore omitted the translation of those two particular sentences in the above presentation.
Original translation by Torsten Olafsson, Denmark, 1986-87