Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax


To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names


Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview






Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page






Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1628?



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City


1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō


1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū


1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750



1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers


c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?


c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts


The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'







Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection



From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia



1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism



1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"


Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.



1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto


1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"



Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"



The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan







3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages


Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators







Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"

This new web page is under continuous expansion ...

On this web page you will find the names and selected published studies by the most prominent Japanese shakuhachi scholars of the post-WW2 Era.


The "traditionalists" among Japanese shakuhachi history writers, both formerly and at present, are those who do not at all question the reliablity of old documents like those that claim that, for example:

 • the Shingon and Zen monk Shinchi Kakushin, 13th century, a.k.a. Hottō Kokushi, transmitted ascetic shakuhachi practice to Japan from China in 1254, including the "sacred" solo music piece 'Kyorei' -

 • the Kyōto Myōan Temple was founded at the very close of the 13th century by a certain "Zen monk" named Kyochiku Ryōen who was originally named Kichiku, Kakushin's alleged most prominent (never-existing) Japanese student -

 • the first 'komusō' was a samurai whose famous warlord general father died in a famous battle in the early 14th century -

 • early 17th century komusō were granted special privileges by the very new national dictator shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1614) -

 • a so called "Fuke Sect" would really have been officially recognized and given special privileges very late in the 5th year of the Enpō Period -

 • and so and so on ...

The "Truth Tellers" among the shakuhachi historians are those, contrarily, who do at least make honest attempts at being critical, maybe even "academic", and include a changing variety of some more of all those many surviving documents that do actually represent really truthful and credible testimonies of how and when the 'komusō' did actually "enter history".


NISHIYAMA MATSUNOSUKE - 1912-2012

西山松之助

1956, 1971, 1975, 1982 & 1997 publications:

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Azekura Shobō, Tokyo, 1956.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
     Chūō Kōronsha, Tokyo, 1971, 1976.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke; Gerald Groemer, translator & editor:
     Edo culture, daily life and diversions in urban Japan, 1600-1868.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honlulu, 1997.



NISHIMURA KOKŪ - 1915-2002

西村虚空

1965 publication:

Nishimura Kokū: 'Kyotaku - Fuke-shū honkyoku.'
     Cover notes for the LP album.
     Toshiba Records TH-7010, Tokyo, 1965.



TSUKITANI TSUNEKO - Died in 2010

月溪恒子

1969, 2000 & 2008 publications:

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     M.A. thesis, Osaka University of Fine Arts, 1969.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'Shakuhachi koten honkyoku no kenkyū.'
     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2000.

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'The Shakuhachi and its music.' Pages 145-168
     in: The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
     SOAS Musicology Series. 466 pages.
     Publ. by Ashgate Publishing Group, England & USA, 2008.



KAMISANGŌ YŪKŌ - Born in 1935

上参郷祐康

1974 publication:

Kamisangō Yūkō: 'Shakuhachi gaku ryakushi:
     suizen no rikai no tame ni.' In descriptive notes for
     'Suizen: Chikuhō ryū ni miru fuke shakuhachi no keifu.'
     Nippon Columbia LP recording KX 7001-3: pp. 9-22, Tokyo, 1974.



KIKKAWA EISHI - 1909-2006

吉川英史

1975 publication:

Kikkawa Eishi: 'Hyōtan namazu to shakuhachi. Shakuhachi ni miru bigaku.'
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, pp. 52-59, Tokyo, 1975.



UENO KATAMI

上野堅実

1984 and 2002 publications:

Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.

Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2002.



IDE YUKIO

泉武夫

1992 publication:

Ide Yukio: 'Chūse shakuhachi tsuikō'.
     In: Research reports of the Kōchi University. Humanities.
     Vol. 41, 1-10, Kōchi, 1992-12-27.
     The article may be downloaded from this location:
     Kōchi University





TUKITANI TUNEKO (d. 2010) and others

月溪恒子

1994 publication:

TUNEKO TUKITANI, Tōru Seyama & Satosi Simura, authors
and Riley Kelly Lee, translator:
     'The Shakuhachi: The Instrument and its Music,
     Change and Diversification.'
     In: 'Contemporary Music Review', 1994, Vol. 8, Issue 2,
     pp. 103-129. Translated by Riley Kelly Lee.
     Link to free download: www.informaworld.com



HOSAKA HIRO'OKI

保坂裕興

1990 and 1994 publications:

Hosaka Hiro'oki: 'Jūhasseiki ni okeru komusō no mibun keisei.'
     Buraku mondai kenkyō no. 105, pp. 46-67, Kyoto, 1990.

Hosaka Hiro'oki: 'Jūshichi seiki ni okeru komusō no seisei: boroboro,
     komosō to no idō to 'kou' kōi no arikata.'
     Printed in: Mibunteki shūen.
     Publ. by Buraku mondai kenkyō shuppan-bu,
     pp. 161-216, Kyoto, 1994.



TAKEDA KYŌSON

武田鏡村

1997 publication:

Takeda Kyōson: Komusō - sei to zoku no igyōsha-tachi.
     "Komusō: Odd People of the Sacred and the Worldly."
     Sanitsu Shobō, Tokyo, 1997.



OKADA FUJIO

岡田富士雄

2001 publication:

Okada Fujio: Komusō no nazo - Suizen no kokoro.
     Tankobon, 2001.



YAMAGUCHI MASAYOSHI

山口正義

2005 publication:

Yamaguchi Masayoshi: Shakuhachi-shi gaisetsu.
     Shiryō to tomo ni tadoru shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2005.



MIZUKAMI TSUTOMU

水上勉

2006 publication:

Mizukami Tsutomu: Kyochiku no fue. Shakuhachi shikō.
     Tokyo, 2006.



IZUMI TAKEO

泉武夫

2013 and 2016 publications:

Izumi Takeo: Take o fuku hitobito.
     Kakareta shakuhachi suisō no rekishi to keifu.
     "Pictures of People who Blow the Bamboo.
     History and Genealogy of People Blowing the Shakuhachi."
     Tōhoku University Publishing Society, Sendai, 2013.

Izumi Takeo: Paintings of Bamboo Flutes. A History
     and Genealogy of Shakuhachi Performance.
     Translated from Japanese by Philip Flavin.
     Tōhoku University Press, Sendai, 2016.



IIZUKA ERIHITO

飯塚恵理人

2015 publication:

Iizuka Erihito: 'Meiji ikō no Myōan-ji no shiryō shōkai.'
     "Materials about the Meian Temple since the Meiji Era."
     In: Bulletin of Culture Informatics, Sugiyama Jogakuen University,
     Nagoya, 2015, Volume 14, pp. 139-151.
     Link: https://lib.sugiyama-u.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=2110&item_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=21



KANDA KAYŪ

神田可遊

2019 publication:

Kanda Kayū: Komusō to shakuhachi hikki.
     Hōgaku Journal Anthology Series no. 5659, Tokyu, 2019.



To the front page To the top