Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage




Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

一関先生ノ尺八筆記

IKKAN SENSEI's SHAKUHACHI HIKKI

1816 - "Master Ikkan's Notes on the Shakuhachi" by Miyaji Ikkan, 宮地一関, - lived c. 1750-1820?



Miyaji Ikkan became a significant figure in the Ichigetsu-ji circles of shakuhachi playing in Edo following upon Kurosawa Kinko's death in 1771. A complete photographic reproduction of Ikkan Sensei's important literary work Shakuhachi hikki can be studied and appreciated in full at The National Diet Library's website.

In Shakuhachi hikki we also find a complete, annotated Fuke temple registry, a short text about Hottō Kokushi and the four Buddhist laymen, as well as a list of the "old 16 branches" (or, factions) of the Fuke Sect. You may go to frames 13 through 20 of the digitalized book to study the pages in question yourself:
National Diet Library, Japan: Shakuhachi hikki

Miyaji Ikkan presents his list of Fuke Temples in relation to their respective branch sects in a fashion very much like Yamamoto Morihide's, in Kyotaku denki kokujikai:

金先派 - Kinsen-ha: 18 temples
活惣派 - Kassō-ha: 14 temples
梅土派 - Umeji-ha: 9 temples
小菊派 - Kogiku-ha: 10 temples
寄竹派 - Yoritake-ha (Kichiku-ha!): 5 temples
根笹派 - Nezasa-ha: 2 temples
不智派 - Fuchi-ha: 9 temples
Total: 67 temples

Then follows a short text in which Miyaji Ikkan explains how come there came to be [legendarily!] 16 branches of the Fuke Sect:

一書ニ云
後深草院建長六年八月二日法燈国師同船ニテ、
四居士来朝ス。
宝伏居士宋怒居士ハ鎮州ノ人。
国佐居士ハ齋州ノ人。
理正居士ハ幽州ノ人。

又云四居士来朝シテ、興国寺ノ廣化庵ニ住テ、我宗ヲ(?)ム。
四居士各四弟子アリ。
都合十六弟子。
正法ヲ附与ス。
仍テ十六派ニ分ル。
今七派相續九派断絶。


"It says in a book, that during the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa, on the 2nd day of the 8th month in the 6th year of the Kenchō Period [1254], onboard the same ship as Hottō Kokushi there were four Buddhist laymen who came to this country.
The Buddhist laymen Hōfu and Sōjo were men from the Chin Province.
Buddhist layman Kokusa was a man from the Sai Province.
Buddhist layman Risei was a man from the Yū Province.

It also says [in the book] that when the four Buddhist laymen had come to this country they settled to live in the Kōke Hermitage of the Kōkoku Temple, and then they founded [?] our sect.
The four Buddhist laymen each had four disciples. A total of 16 disciples.
They established the True Teaching [of my/our sect]. Therefore they divided [and organized the sect] into 16 branch sects.
Seven factions have been continued, nine factions have become extinct."

古十六派 - KO-JŪROKU-HA

古十六派ト云ハ - "The old 16 factions were called:

靳詮 改今ノ金先派 - Kinzen, changed to the pres. Kinsen-ha
宋和 今ノ根笹派 - Sōwa - the present Nezasa-ha
火下 今ノ活惣派 - Kaka - the present Kassō-ha
寄竹 - Yoritake/Kichiku
梅土 - Umeji
小菊 - Kogiku
夏潭 今ノ不智派 - Katan - the present Fuchi-ha

右七派相続ス
The above 7 branch sects are continued/are still in existence

養沢 - Yōtaku
義文 大櫻トモ - Gibun - also called Dai-ō [?]
司祖 - Tsukasaso/Shiso
短尺 多門トモ - Tanjaku - also called Tamon
野木 - Noki/Nogi
芝隣 酒林トモ - Shirin - also called Sakabayashi
陰巴 - Indomoe/Inpa
雄南 野ノ派トモ - Yūnan - also called No no ha
児派 - Chigo

右九派断絶ス
The above 9 branch sects are extinct/discontinued"

     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2013.


An almost identical list of 16 branch sects is presented in Koji Ruien Vol. 9, p. 1134:

List of 16 branch sects in Koji Ruien Vol. 9, p. 1134


The headline reads Fuke shūmon okitegaki, 普化宗門掟書 - "Legal Document(s) of the Fuke Sect" [?]
No date is given. I have not yet located a reliable version of the original document.
Here follows a transcript/translation:

火下派 後改活總 - "Kaka-ha - later changed to Kassō
靳詮派 後文字改金先 - Kinzen-ha - later, characters changed to Kinsen
寄竹派 - Kichiku-ha [alt.: Yoritake-ha]
梅土派 - Umeji-ha
夏潭派 後改小菊 - Katan-ha - later changed to Kogiku
司祖派 後改根笹 - Tsukasaso-ha/Shiso-ha - later changed to Nezasa
不智派 - Fuchi-ha
養沢派 在山城國 - Yōtaku-ha - in Yamashiro-guni [present Kyōto-fu]
芝鄰派 在山城國 - Shirin-ha - in Yamashiro-guni [present Kyōto-fu]
義文派 在九州 - Gibun-ha - in Kyūshū
陰巴派 在九州 - Indomoe-ha/Inpa-ha - in Kyūshū
宋和派 在北国 - Sōwa-ha - in Hokkoku [present Nagano & Niigata Prefectures]
雄南派 在石見国 - Yūnan-ha - in Iwami-guni [present Shimane Prefecture]
短尺派 在奥州 - Tanjaku - in Ōshū [Tōhoku Area]
野木派 在尾張国 - Nogi-ha - in Owari-guni [present Aichi Prefecture]
児派 在尾張国 - Chigo-ha - in Owari-guni [present Aichi Prefecture]"

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