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The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark



About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus

The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions

Highlighted Illustrations

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.

The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama

 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage

Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern

ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550

1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple

1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise


     c. 1550 to c. 1640

The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources

1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters

1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752

c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions

1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.

Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives

1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY


1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection


     1945 ...

1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"

3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...

1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages

Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators

Literature / References


Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters




" - - - According to the 'Boro-boro Story Book', the empty sky priests were 7 feet 8 inches tall and tough and strong. Clad in paper garments decorated with designs, they carried swords which were 1 foot 8 inches long, and held octagonal, rattan-wound shafts by their sides. Walking on high clogs 1 foot 5 inches tall, their hair long and black, they came to be known as 'Boro'. It is being said that they took beautiful wives as spouses and travelled together all over the country in groups of thirty."

其後に薦僧と云もの僧とも見えず俗とも見えず山伏ともみえず, 刀をさし尺八を吹せなかにむしろをおひ道路をありき人の門戸に立て物を乞もらふ.
是ぼろ々々の流也, と云傳へたり。

"Later, as for the 'Komosō', they appear to have been neither monks, laymen, nor yamabushi. They wore swords and blew the shakuhachi. Carrying straw mats on their backs they wandered the roads and, they begged for and received alms at people's gates. This, I am told, is the tradition of the 'Boroboro'. - - - "

     Hayashi Razan, 1583-1657, in 'Tsurezuregusa nozuchi', "Excursions
     into the Tsurezuregusa". Written in 1621. Published in 1648.
     Printed in 1667. Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 1986-87.
     Source: Kurihara Kōta, 1918.

Hayashi Razan

Hayashi Razan (a.k.a. Hayashi Dōshun) - artist and date unknown




" - - - In our country, in recent times, there were [two] persons who lived as hermits in Uji, Kyōun [pseudonym for Ikkyū Sōjun, 一休宗純, 1394-1481] and Ichirōsō, who had abandoned the world. They [both] played the shakuhachi [together]. - - - "

     Hayashi Razan, 1583-1657, in 'Shakuhachi (no) ki',
     "Shakuhachi Chronicle". Dated Genna 9, 1623.
     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2013. In vol. 19 of:
     Hayashi Razan bunshū, "Collected Writings by
     Hayashi Razan", Kōbunsha, Kyōto, 1930, pp. 217.
     Link to online version:
     Hayashi Razan bunshū



Yoin shakuhachi no ki 1

Yoin shakuhachi no ki 2

Yoin shakuhachi no ki 3

Yoin shakuhachi no ki 4

Hayashi Razan's 'Yoin shakuyhachi (no) ki

     Hayashi Razan, 1583-1657, in 'Yoin shakuhachi (no) ki',
     "Further Notes to the Shakuhachi Chronicle". Dated Genna 11, 1625.
     In vol. 19 of:
     Hayashi Razan bunshū, "Collected Writings by
     Hayashi Razan", Kōbunsha, Kyōto, 1930, pp. 218.
     Link to online version:
     Hayashi Razan bunshū
     See also: Linder, 2012, p. 213.

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