Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage




Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

The Sōtō Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism originated with and was transmitted in direct, unbroken line from the Chinese Ch'an/Zen monk Tung-shan Liang-chieh (Dongshan Liangjie) of the 9th century.

The Rinzai Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism originated with and was transmitted in direct, unbroken line from the Chinese Ch'an/Zen monk Lin-chi I-hsüan (Linji Yixuan) of the 9th century.

The Ōbaku Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism, however, was introduced and established in Japan by the Chinese Ch'an/Zen monk Yin-yüan Lung Ch'i (Yinyuan Longqi) of the Lin-chi/Rinzai line only during the middle decades of the 17th century.

Although the Ōbaku monks were granted shōgunal approval to establich a head temple of their own, the Manpuku-ji in Uji south of Kyōto, their school remained to be operating as but a sub branch of the Kyōto Rinzai Zen temple organization until the very end of the Edo Period - and even longer.

Then, entering the Meiji Period, only in 1876 was the Ōbaku branch eventually granted full independence as a "genuine" Buddhist "sect" in its own right.

Now, as for the so called "Fuke Sect of Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism":
Fuke-shū, 普化宗???

That is indeed the pretty serious, rather controversial subject to be treated on this new webpage.



FUKE-SHŪ

普化宗

The so called "Fuke Sect" of the shakuhachi playing Komusō

Fuke Zenji sculpture, Matsudo City Museum

Fuke Zenji sculpture, Matsudo City Museum, Chiba, Japan.
Artist & dating unknown. Photo by Ron Nelson, 2015.


Fuke Zenji, in Chinese: P'u-k'o Ch'an-shi, was a contemporary of Rinzai Zenji,
in Chinese: Lin-chi Ch'an-shi, both of whom lived and practiced in China
during the first half of the 9th century AD.

For that reason, quite logically so, Fuke never was, in any way, a "Rinzai Zen monk".

That school/branch/lineage & transmission of Ch'an/Zen Buddhist philosophy thought only formulated and eventually established itself after the death of Master Lin-chi/Rinzai - and of Fuke, too, for that matter.

Was the so called "Fuke Sect" of the Komusō ever properly, officially - and in actual preserved writing - recognized and approved by the supreme Japanese shōgunal authorities?

The answer is, definitely so: "No"!

Do remember, by the way, "You can never prove a lie to be true ... "


Update of Some Rather Serious Significance

You are now welcome to study a full English translation of the mysterious komusō document commonly referred to as the "Enpō 5 Edict", dated January 11, 1678 - certainly not 1677-12-18!

1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reproduction displayed at Matsudo City Museum in Chiba

Click in the picture to enlarge.

A reproduction of the 1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe memorandum on display in the Komusō Collection, Matsudo City Museum, NW Chiba, Japan.

Photo by Ron Nelson, President of The International Shakuhachi Society, Summer, 2015.

Direct link to the webpage in question: 1678, January 11: The Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum

Fabrication, Falsification, or Forgery?

1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reproduction printed in Koji Ruien, 1880 edition     1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reproduction printed in Koji Ruien, 1938 edition


Left: The 1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reprinted in the monumental source collection Koji Ruien, 1880 edition.
Right: The 1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reprinted in the Koji Ruien, 1938 edition.

To the very left in the original, handwritten document above you read these characters: 虚無僧諸派, Komusō shoha, "(To) All Komusō Factions [or, Branches]".

In both of the two Koji ruien reprints we see these characters: 普化宗門諸派, Fuke shūmon shoha, "(To) All "Fuke Sect" Factions [or, Branches]".

Obviously, both of the Koji ruien reprints of the Oboe must be rejected as "falsifications" compared with the handwritten version of the memorandum shown above them.

We can only conclude and respect that there was in fact so far no "Fuke Sect" in existence at the time the document was originally issued/dated, namely: January 11, 1678.

Moreover, oboe, , is nothing but a "memorandum", a minor "regulation".

It is not a okite-gaki, 掟書, meaning "law", "regulation", "rule", "code", "law", "agreement", "arrangement".

Neither is it a hatto, 法度, meaning "law", "ban", "prohibition", "ordinance" .

And, it is certainly not a so called kō-nin, 公認, meaning "official recognition", "authorization", "license", "accreditation".

Direct link to the webpage in question: 1678, January 11: The Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum



'普化尺八' - "FUKE SHAKUHACHI"

That Fundamentally Fantastic, Fairytale-like Flute - with the Forged Faith and that Funnily Falsified "Filosophy" ...




To be continued and further elaborated ...



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