Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History, Ideology & Practices in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū History Fabrication Scam



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Highlighted Illustrations


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.


Miscell. Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
     and the Temple Patron Household System


Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
     Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
     - a Factual & Unbiased Chronology


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West


The Source Collections

The Written Sources


Research Cases of Special Significance and Interest:

c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise


The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book


1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis


The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History


1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual ("Empty")
     Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
     The Many Existing Different Versions



1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1795 & 1816: Two Original Komusō
     "Fuke Temple" Lists



1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
     - a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book



1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.

1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia

1848: The Fuke Monk Affair Government
     Proclamation


1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
     and of the Practice of Religious Begging


1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in Kyōto



Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
     Source Examples - Commented Links:

1871 (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


1890-1895 & 1930-1932: The Tokugawa kinrei-kō
     Prohibition Law Source Collection


1892: Suzuki Jisuke a.k.a. Higuchi Taizan's
     Shakuhachi shian Study Book


1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection

1896-1914 & 1967-1971: The Koji ruien
     Source Collection


1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
     About "Fuke Sect"-related Matters


1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
     Self-study Book


1918 & 1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
     Into Shakuhachi History



1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
     Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen



1899 till today: Translations of Source Texts
     in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
     including the Internet/WWW



Literature

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū History Fabrication Scam

The Sōtō Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism originated with and was transmitted in direct, unbroken line from the Chinese Ch'an/Zen monk Tung-shan Liang-chieh (Dongshan Liangjie) of the 9th century.

The Rinzai Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism originated with and was transmitted in direct, unbroken line from the Chinese Ch'an/Zen monk Lin-chi I-hsüan (Linji Yixuan) of the 9th century.

The Ōbaku Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism, however, was introduced and established in Japan by the Chinese Ch'an/Zen monk Yin-yüan Lung Ch'i (Yinyuan Longqi) of the Lin-chi/Rinzai line only during the middle decades of the 17th century.

Although the Ōbaku monks were granted shōgunal approval to establich a head temple of their own, the Manpuku-ji in Uji south of Kyōto, their school remained to be operating as but a sub branch of the Kyōto Rinzai Zen temple organization until the very end of the Edo Period - and even longer.

Then, entering the Meiji Period, only in 1876 was the Ōbaku branch eventually granted full independence as a "genuine" Buddhist "sect" in its own right.

Now, as for the so called "Fuke Sect of Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism":
Fuke-shū, 普化宗???

That is indeed the pretty serious, rather controversial subject to be treated on this new webpage.



FUKE-SHŪ

普化宗

The so called "Fuke Sect" of the shakuhachi playing Komusō

Fuke Zenji sculpture, Matsudo City Museum

Fuke Zenji sculpture, Matsudo City Museum, Chiba, Japan.
Artist & dating unknown. Photo by Ron Nelson, 2015.


Fuke Zenji, in Chinese: P'u-k'o Ch'an-shi, was a contemporary of Rinzai Zenji,
in Chinese: Lin-chi Ch'an-shi, both of whom lived and practiced in China
during the first half of the 9th century AD.

For that reason, quite logically so, Fuke never was, in any way, a "Rinzai Zen monk".

That school/branch/lineage & transmission of Ch'an/Zen Buddhist philosophy thought only formulated and eventually established itself after the death of Master Lin-chi/Rinzai - and of Fuke, too, for that matter.

Was the so called "Fuke Sect" of the Komusō ever properly, officially - and in actual preserved writing - recognized and approved by the supreme Japanese shōgunal authorities?

The answer is, definitely so: "No"!

Do remember, by the way, "You can never prove a lie to be true ... "


Update of Some Rather Serious Significance

You are now welcome to study a full English translation of the mysterious komusō document commonly referred to as the "Enpō 5 Edict", dated January 11, 1678 - certainly not 1677-12-18!

1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reproduction displayed at Matsudo City Museum in Chiba

Click in the picture to enlarge.

A reproduction of the 1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe memorandum on display in the Komusō Collection, Matsudo City Museum, NW Chiba, Japan.

Photo by Ron Nelson, President of The International Shakuhachi Society, Summer, 2015.

Direct link to the webpage in question: 1678, January 11: The Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum

Fabrication, Falsification, or Forgery?

1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reproduction printed in Koji Ruien, 1880 edition     1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reproduction printed in Koji Ruien, 1938 edition


Left: The 1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reprinted in the monumental source collection Koji Ruien, 1880 edition.
Right: The 1678-1-11 Enpō 5 Oboe document reprinted in the Koji Ruien, 1938 edition.

To the very left in the original, handwritten document above you read these characters: 虚無僧諸派, Komusō shoha, "(To) All Komusō Factions [or, Branches]".

In both of the two Koji ruien reprints we see these characters: 普化宗門諸派, Fuke shūmon shoha, "(To) All "Fuke Sect" Factions [or, Branches]".

Obviously, both of the Koji ruien reprints of the Oboe must be rejected as "falsifications" compared with the handwritten version of the memorandum shown above them.

We can only conclude and respect that there was in fact so far no "Fuke Sect" in existence at the time the document was originally issued/dated, namely: January 11, 1678.

Moreover, oboe, , is nothing but a "memorandum", a minor "regulation".

It is not a okite-gaki, 掟書, meaning "law", "regulation", "rule", "code", "law", "agreement", "arrangement".

Neither is it a hatto, 法度, meaning "law", "ban", "prohibition", "ordinance" .

And, it is certainly not a so called kō-nin, 公認, meaning "official recognition", "authorization", "license", "accreditation".

Direct link to the webpage in question: 1678, January 11: The Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum



'普化尺八' - "FUKE SHAKUHACHI"

That Fundamentally Fantastic, Fairytale-like Flute - with the Forged Faith and that Funnily Falsified "Filosophy" ...




To be continued ...



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