「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History, Ideology & Practices in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark



About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū History Fabrication Scam

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Highlighted Illustrations

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.

Miscell. Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
     and the Temple Patron Household System

Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
     Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
     - a Factual & Unbiased Chronology

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West

The Source Collections

The Written Sources

Research Cases of Special Significance and Interest:

c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise

The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752

1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual ("Empty")
     Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
     The Many Existing Different Versions

1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1795 & 1816: Two Original Komusō
     "Fuke Temple" Lists

1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
     - a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.

1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia

1848: The Fuke Monk Affair Government

1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
     and of the Practice of Religious Begging

1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in Kyōto

Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
     Source Examples - Commented Links:

1871 (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

1890-1895 & 1930-1932: The Tokugawa kinrei-kō
     Prohibition Law Source Collection

1892: Suzuki Jisuke a.k.a. Higuchi Taizan's
     Shakuhachi shian Study Book

1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection

1896-1914 & 1967-1971: The Koji ruien
     Source Collection

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
     About "Fuke Sect"-related Matters

1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
     Self-study Book

1918 & 1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
     Into Shakuhachi History

1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
     Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen

1899 till today: Translations of Source Texts
     in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
     including the Internet/WWW



Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

1848: The Fuke Monk Affair Government Reprimand & Proclamation

普化僧之儀 御觸 - FUKE-SŌ no GI ni TSUKE GO-SHOKU

"Proclamation Regarding the Fuke Monk Affair"

1848, Friday January 21 - not December 26th, 1847!
(Kōka 4, 12th month, 26th day)

The Fuke "Sect" is placed under the direct jurisdiction of the Rinzai Sect of Buddhism

The government proclamation of January 31st, 1848

The government proclamation of January 21st, 1848
In Yamaguchi, 2005, p. 161

The komusō fraternity is (eventually) put under the direct administration and supposed control of the Rinzai Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism.

The date of this very important official government document is normally given as 1847, Kōka 4.
However, the date of the 26th day in the 12th month of Kōka 4 did not fall late in 1847, but is equivalent with January the 21st, 1848, a Friday, according to the Western, Gregorian calendar!

You can verify this fact, yourself, via this very useful calendrical calculator:

According to Kiku Day, Denmark:

" - - - The relationship between the bakufu [the Edo government] and the Fuke sect worsened, due to difficulties controlling the sect and criminal behaviour on the part of some monks.
In 1847 a decree from the government stated that the Fuke sect was subject to the same rules as the Rinzai sect. This revoked the special privileges granted in Keichō no Okitegaki, which led to frustration among the komusō monks. The deterioration in the relationship culminated when GENDŌ Kanmyō, the thirty-third kansu of Myōanji, and MYŌAN Sugyō, also from Myōanji, were involved in the 'Hamaguri Gomon Rebellion' [蛤御門の変 ], in 1864, as advocates for Imperial rule against the Tokugawa Shogunate. Mutual distrust increased, as did the number of sanctions and investigations of komusō monks. - - - "

Link: Kiku Day article, Cambridge University Press

According to WikiPedia, Germany:

" - - - 1847 wurde die Fuke-shū als eigenständige Schule aufgelöst und ihre Anhänger rechtmäßig der Rinzai-shū unterstellt. - - - "

Link: WikiPedia, Germany: Fuke-shū

According to Stan Richardson, USA:

" - - - In 1847 the Shogun Tokugawa Ideyoshi, after struggling to bring the Fuke-shu under his control, finally abolished the 1614 edict. He disenfranchised the Fuke-shu and allowed all classes of people to become Komuso. - - - "

Link: Webpage: Ichi-on jobutsu

According to Gunnar Jinmei Linder, thesis p. 130:

" - - - Kurihara remarks that the abuse and mischief of the komusō continued, and the authorities eventually issued a proclamation that in effect disclaimed the privilegies that the "Keichō okite-gaki" had brought with it.
In 1847, the central authorities issued an official proclamation to the monks of the Fuke sect, in which it is stated that their activities had become disorderly and indecent in recent years, that the denomination was a branch of Rinzai Zen and that the monks should follow the path of a Zen Buddhist monk. It also states that the sect should not make claims of being a hiding place, but rather that they should conduct their activities in the same way as monks of other denominations, and receive what people bestow on them, i.e., not extort alms, receive money for honsoku licenses, or other worldly activities. - - - "

Link: Gunnar Jinmei Linder doctoral thesis

According th Riley Kelly Lee, thesis ch. 3:

" - - - All of the effort to maintain the official recognition and status of the sect was to be of no avail. There finally came a time when the benefits to the bakufu were far outweighed by the disadvantages of allowing the Fuke sect to retain its special privileges. In 1847, the government issued a furegaki (触書, circulated official announcements, frequently posted on public announcement boards throughout the country), unequivocally stating that the privileges of the Fuke sect, as stated in the Keichō no okitegaki, were no longer valid and should have never been granted in the first place. The announcement revoked the rule that only those of samurai birth could join the sect. Since the Fuke sect was under the auspices of the Rinzai sect of Zen Buddhism, which anyone could join regardless of birth, it was argued by the bakufu that the same criteria for membership should apply to the Fuke sect. Furthermore, the announcement stated that the members of the sect did not require special privileges to exercise their spiritual practices, but they did need to cultivate charity of the heart (Kamisango 1974:18). - - - "

Link: Riley Kelly Lee doctoral thesis

To the front page To the top