Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage




Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

HINDUISM


c. 2600 BCE:

Yogic Seal from Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley, N. India

Square seal depicting a nude male deity with three faces,
seated in yogic position on a throne.
Harappan Bronze Age Culture, c. 2600-1900 BCE.
Dimensions: 2.65 x 2.7 cm, 0.83 to 0.86 thickness.
Excavated at Mohenjo-daro, present-day Punjab, Pakistan.
Now in the Islamabad Museum.
Source: https://www.harappa.com/indus/33.html




BRĀHMAN - "The highest Universal Principle", "The Ultimate Reality in the Universe"
ब्राह्मण


ĀTMAN - "The Self", "The Soul"
आत्मन


ADVAITA - "Not Two", "Not Dual", "Non-Duality", "Non-Dividedness"
अद्वैत (Sanskrit)

Originally known as 'Puruşavāda' in Hindu philosophy.



Date: 8th to 6th CENTURY B.C.


AUM / OM



DHYĀNA - "Meditation", "Thinking"
ध्यान (Sanskrit) - झान (Pali)


SAMĀDHI - " ... a state of meditative consciousness.
It is a meditative absorption or trance, attained by the practice of dhyāna.
समाधि (Sanskrit)




INDIAN BUDDHISM


5th CENTURY BCE onwards:


BRĀHMAN - "The highest Universal Principle", "The Ultimate Reality in the Universe"
ब्राह्मण


ĀTMAN - "The Essential Self"
आत्मन


ANĀTMAN - "The Not-Self"
अनात्मन् (Sanskrit)


ADVAYA -
"The Essential Nature of Things when truly understood, according to Buddhist thought":
अद्वय (Sanskrit)
- "not two without a second", "only", "unique", "non-duality", "ultimate truth", "identity", "unity"



DHARMA - The "Law" in Buddhist Thought
धर्म (Sanskrit) - धम्म (Pali)


DHYĀNA - "Meditation", "Thinking"
ध्यान (Sanskrit) - झान (Pali)


SAMĀDHI - " ... a state of meditative consciousness.
It is a meditative absorption or trance, attained by the practice of dhyāna.
समाधि (Sanskrit)





CHINESE TAOISM, YIN-YANG PHILOSOPHY & CONFUCIANISM


6th Century BCE onwards ...

TAO / DAO (4th tone - Japanese: DŌ)

The "Way", or: "Ultimate Reality" (?), in Chinese Taoist philosophy


"The Tao of Heaven operates mysteriously and secretly;
it has no fixed shape;
it follows no definite rules;
it is so great that you can never come to the end of it,
it is so deep that you can never fathom it."

     Quotation from the the 'Huai Nan Tzu' ('Huainanzi'), 2nd century BCE
     not later than 139 BCE.


"In Taoism Nature is taken to be infinitely wise, infinitely complex, and infinitely irrational. One must take a yielding stance and abandon all intellectual preconceptions. The goal is wu wei [無爲 / 無為 / 无为], doing nothing contrary to nature. Nature does not need to be perfected or improved. It is we who need to change; we need to come into accord.

Taoists rejected all dichotomies, even the most fundamental one of being versus non-being, for both come from the same source, the deep and the profound.
The goal of Taoism is to attain that which precedes duality. The only way to discover this original source is to observe nature. During peak experiences in nature, the deep meets the deep."

     Source: HummingBirdWorld.com



TZU-RAN / ZI-RAN (4th and 2nd tones - Japanese: SHIZEN)

Nature
自然



CH'I / QI (4th tone - Japanese: KI)

Breath; Air; Vital Vapour; Steam; Energy; Essence; Spirit; Mind; Soul; Intention; Heart
/



WU HSING / WU XING (3rd and 2nd tones - Japanese: GO-GYŌ)

The "Five Elements", the "Five Phases", the "Five Agents", the "Five Movements", the "Five Processes", the "Five Steps/Stages"
五行

  You may read more here: Wikipedia: "Wu xing"



YIN-YANG (1st and 2nd tones - Japanese: IN-YŌ / ON-MYŌ / ON-YŌ)
The Cosmic Dual Forces:
"Negative-Positive", "Female-Male", "Moon-Sun", "Dark-Bright" etc.
陰陽 / 阴阳



WU (2nd tone - Japanese: MU)
"No - ", "Not - ", "None" - a negating prefix - "Non-Existence", "Non-Being"
/


WU WEI (2nd and 2nd tones - Japanese: MU-I)
"No Action", "Non-acting"
無為 / 无为



KONG / KUNG (1st tone - Japanese: KŪ)
Meaning in Taoist thought: "Emptiness", "Quiet"




TIEN TI / TIAN DI (1st and 4th tones - Japanese: TEN CHI)
"Heaven and Earth"
天地





The 4 Classical Confucian Virtues - Rules for Proper Living and Conduct


四字 - "THE FOUR IDEOGRAPHS"


CHUNG / ZHONG (1st tone - Japanese: CHŌ)
"Loyalty", "Devotion", "Fidelity", "Faithfulness"




HSIAO / XIAO (4th tone - Japanese: KŌ)
"Filial Piëty"




CHIEH / JIE (4th tone - Japanese: YO)
"Contingency"
/



YI / YI (4th tone - Japanese: GI)
"Righteousness"
/





INDIAN BUDDHISM

2nd / 3rd Centuries CE:


ŚŪNYATĀ - "Non-Substantiality", "Non-Self", "Voidness"
शून्यता (Sanskrit)





CHINESE BUDDHISM

2nd CENTURY CE:


BU ER / BU ER (4th and 4th tones - Japanese: FU-NI)
"Not Two", "Non-Duality", "Non-Dual"

These are the two Chinese ideographs chosen to translate/represent the very central Indian Mahayana Buddhist term/concept of 'Advaya', अद्वय see above, by the Indian Mahayana Buddhist missionary An Shigao, fl. c. 148-180 CE, in what became the very earliest Buddhist sutras that were rendered in the Chinese language.
不二




EARLY 5th CENTURY CE:


KUNG / KONG (1st tone - Japanese: KŪ)
"Non-Substantiality", "Void", "Emptiness" - semantically and philosphical equivalent with "Non-Duality", "Ultimate Reality"

This is the Chinese ideograph chosen to translate/represent the very central Indian Mahayana Buddhist term/concept of 'Śūnyatā', शून्यता, that was formulated by the Indian Buddhist philosopher Acharya Nāgārjuna, c. 150 – 250 BCE.

The earliest appearances are found abundantly in the sutra collection Chang A-han-chzing/Zhang a han jing, 長阿含經, that was translated into Chinese in 413 CE.




CH'AN / CHAN (2nd tone - Japanese: ZEN)
"Meditation", "Contemplation", "Concentration"

This is the Chinese ideograph chosen to translate/represent the very central Indian Mahayana Buddhist term/concept of dhyāna, ध्यान.

The earliest appearances are found in abundance in the sutra collection Chang A-han-ching/Zhang a han jing, 長阿含經, that was translated into Chinese in 413 CE.




SAN-MEI / SAN-MEI (1st and 4th tones - Japanese: SAMMAI)
"Deep mental absorption"

This is the Chinese ideograph chosen to translate/represent the very central Indian Mahayana Buddhist term/concept of 'samādhi', समाधि.

The earliest appearances are found in considerable numbers in the sutra collection Chang A-han-ching/Zhang a han jing, Japanese: Chan A Yū Kyō, 長阿含經, that was translated into Chinese in 413 CE.
三昧



WU / WU (4th tone - Japanese: SATORI)
"Ultimate realization", "Enlightenment"

The earliest appearances are found 10 times in the sutra collection Chang A-han-ching/Zhang a han jing, Japanese: Chan A Yū Kyō, 長阿含經, that was translated into Chinese in 413 CE.




HSÜ-KUNG / XU KONG (1st and 1st tones - Japanese: koKŪ)
"Non-Substantiality", "Void", "Emptiness" - semantically and philosphical equivalent with "Non-Duality", "Ultimate Reality"

This is the Chinese ideograph chosen to translate/represent the very central Indian Mahayana Buddhist term/concept of 'Śūnyatā', शून्यता,

This, the definitely most important concept in Mahayana Buddhist philosophy appears abundantly in the sutra collection Chang A-han-chzing/Zhang a han jing, 長阿含經, translated into Chinese in 413 CE, and in a total of 78.743 times in the Mahayana Buddhist Tripitaka as a whole.
虚空




5th to 6th CENTURIES:

Bu sheng Bu mieh / Bu sheng Bu mie (4th, 1st, 4th and 4th tones
- Japanese: FU-SHŌ FU-METSU)
"Un-born Un-perished", "Non-born Non-perished", "Not born Not dead"

This basic non-dualistic concept and idea appears prominently in the earliest Buddhist sutras and abundantly in the so called Avatamsaka Sutra, known in Chinese as the Huayan Sutra, and in Japanese as the Kegon Sutra, 華厳経, that was translated into Chinese during the Southern Dynasties, 420-589.
不生不滅

Read more here: CHINA 2 - 500 ... Avatamsaka Sutra



Bu er / Bu er (4th and 4th tones - Japanese: FU-NI)
"Un-born Un-perished", "Non-born Non-perished", "Not born Not dead"

This basic non-dualistic concept and idea appears prominently in the earliest Buddhist sutras and abundantly in the so called Avatamsaka Sutra, known in Chinese as the Huayan Sutra, and in Japanese as the Kegon Sutra, 華厳経, that was translated into Chinese during the Southern Dynasties, 420-589.
不二

Read more here: CHINA 2 - 500 ... Hsin-hsin-ming




LATE 7th CENTURY:

MING AN / MING AN (2nd and 4th tones - Japanese: MYŌ-AN)
"Light and Darkness", "The Bright and The Dark", "Duality", "Opposites"

The first Chinese Zen personality known to discuss and question the dualism of Ming/Myō, , and An/An, , probably was the 6th Ch'an patriarch Hui-neng (Jap.: Enō), 638-713, to be seen in Chapter 46 of the Platform Sutra, in Chinese: Liu-tzu T'an Ching/Liu zu Tan-jing, 六祖壇經, that was compiled during the 8th to 13th centuries.
明暗

Read more here: CHINA 2 - 500 ... Huineng about Myō-An




8th CENTURY:

MING AN / MING AN (2nd and 4th tones - Japanese: MYŌ-AN)
"Light and Darkness", "The Bright and The Dark", "Duality", "Opposites"

The second Chinese Zen personality known to discuss and question the dualism of Ming/Myō, , and An/An, , was Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien (Jap.: Sekitō Kisen), 700-790, evidenced in his essential poëtic essay Ts'an-t'ung-ch'i (Jap.: Sandōkai), 參同契.
明暗

Read more here: CHINA 2 - 500 ... Shih-t'ou about Myō-An




9th CENTURY:

MING AN / MING AN (2nd and 4th tones - Japanese: MYŌ-AN)
"Light and Darkness", "The Bright and The Dark", "Duality", "Opposites"

The third Chinese Zen personality known to discuss and even attack the dualism of Ming/Myō, , and An/An, , was P'u-k'o/P'u-hua (Jap.: Fuke), early 9th century, well documented in the Lin-chi Lu (Jap.: Rinzai roku), 臨済録.
明暗

Read more here: CHINA 2 - 500 ... P'u-k'o about Myō-An




11th-12th CENTURIES:


WU KUNG TI / WU KONG DI (2nd, 3rd and 2nd tones - Japanese: MU-KU-TEKI)
"No Hole(s) Flute", "Flute Without Holes"

The earliest known mention of the non-dualistic term mu-ku-teki, "flute with no holes", is found once in the preserved writings of the Chinese Zen monk Wu-tsu Fa-yen/Wuzu Faya, 五祖法演, Japanese: Goso Hōen, 1024-1104.

Afterwards, the expression is found in 93 other Chinese Buddhist texts in the Tripitaka, not least in the famous Pi-yen Lu/Bì yan Lu: "Blue Cliff Record", 碧巖錄, collected and finalized during the years of 1125 through 1135.
無孔笛



JAPAN

13th CENTURY:

TAN-TEKI - "Short flute"
短笛



MEGURA-HŌSHI - "Blind monk(s)"
目闇法師



MYŌ-AN
"Light and Darkness", "The Bright and The Dark", "Duality", "Opposites"
The first Japanese Zen personality known to focus on the dualism of Ming/Myō, , and An/An, , was the Sōtō Zen monk Dōgen, 1200-1253, writing in the Shobōgenzō, 正法眼蔵.
明暗

Read more here: JAPAN 2 - 1233-1477: Dōgen about Myō-An



NAMU AMIDA BUTSU - "Naming (the) Amida Buddha"
Or, "Chanting the name of the Amida Buddha"
南無阿弥陀仏




14th CENTURY:

RYŌTŌ (wo) SETSUDAN (su) - "(To) Cut (off) Dualism"
両頭 切断




15th CENTURY:

KANNEN - "Observing (the) Thoughts/Senses"
Or, "Contemplation"
観念



MUJŌSHIN - "(The) Impermanent Mind"
Or, "(The) Mind of Impermanence"
無常心



KOMOSŌ - "Mat Monk"
The oldest surviving written record of komosō: in Japan is dated 1486.
薦僧




s



1549:

KIRISHITAN PATEREN - "Christian Missionaries"
The first Western, Catholic missionaries arrived in Southern Japan and began to preach and baptize Japanese natives in 1549.
キリシタン パテレン



c. 1550-1560:

FUKE-SŌ / FUKE KOMOSŌ - "Fuke Monk / Fuke Mat Monk"
The person name Fuke and the term komo-sō are paired and connected semantically in at least two surviving editions of the mid-16th century dictionary 'Setsuyō'-shū.
普化僧 / 普化薦僧



MUSHA ANGYA - "Warrior Pilgrimage"
武者行脚




17th CENTURY:

RŌNIN - "Wave Man": the masterless samurai
This appellation - and the phenomenon - is many centuries old. By the very early Edo Period, however, we know for certain that masterless samurai had begun to join the ranks of the "Fuke komosō".
浪人



1614:

SHUGYŌ - "Intensive Mental Training"
This term is for the first time in a short story collection dated 1614 being uttered by a travelling Fuke komosō to characterize his life as a most dedicated ascetic shakuhachi practitioner.
修行



WAKIZASHI - The short sword worn by the samurai warrior
ざし



KO-MU-SŌ - "Old + Non-existing + Monk"
This is an interesting misspelling of the term komo-sō by Miura Jōshin who authored the above-mentioned short story collection, the Kenmon-shū.
古無僧

Read more about the Kenmon-shū here:
"1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book"




Additional, comprehensive material for the 17th through the 19th centuries is being prepared - as of mid-September, 2018.




1628:

KAIDō HONSOKU - "Coastal Routes Basic Rules"
This is the title of the one and only surviving written testimony, a shakuhachi playing mendicant's credo, produced by the late komosō themselves.
海道本則



AN ... MYū - "Darkness ... Brightness"
...



TENGAI - "Heaven-Cover"
  天蓋



KATANA - "Sword"
 




TAKE - "Bamboo"
Synonym for bamboo flute, here: shakuhachi




MI-BUSHI - "Three Joints"
  三節



Jū-ROPPA -"Sixteen faction/branches"
The Kaidō honsoku lists 16 branches of the Fuke komosō brotherhood
十六派




1629:

FUMI-E - "Trampling (on a Christian) Picture/Icon"
 




1637-1645:

SHIMABARA no RAN - The "Shimabara Uprising" near Nagasaki on Kyūshū,
in 1637-38;
島原



SAKOKU - "Isolating (the) Country", i.e. the "Expulsion (of Foreigners)"
鎖国



SHŪMON ARATAME - "(Buddhist) Sect inspection"
宗門改



DANKA SEIDO - "(Temple) Patronage System"
壇家制度



TERA-UKE SEIDO - "Temple Solicitation System"
寺請制度




1645 at the latest:

MU-SHIN MU-NEN - "Non-Mind Non-Thought"
This is precisely the way in which the renowned Zen Buddhist monk and at times very high-ranking temple abbot Takuan Sōhō, 沢庵宗彭, 1573-1645, mentored his samurai sword fencing students throughout his entire "professional carriere".
無心無念




1646:

ISSHI BUNSHU - Prominent Zen monk who lived from 1608 to 1646.
On the background of context, the entirety of all surviving documents from the 17th century, especially, it appears to be fairly obvious that Isshi Bunshu can well be the one who invented the new appellation komusō.
一絲文守



SANDŌ MUGETSU - Possibly a masterless samurai and hermit who was corresponding with Isshi Bunshu and became a komusō no later than in 1646.

Acc. to a genealogy produced by the Edo Reihō Temple centuries later, a certain komusō named Sandō Mugetsu, allegedly passed away as early as in 1598, Keichō 3.
That genealogy of chief komusō "ancestors", however, is a plain to see fabrication regarding all its names dating from before the late 17th century.
三堂無月

Read more about the Isshi Bunshu and Sandō Mugetsu connection here:
"1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu"



KYOMU SHIZEN - "Kyomu Nature"
虚無自然



HOTTŌ KOKUSHI / SHINCHI KAKUSHIN - A Shingon and Zen Buddhist monk who lived from 1207 to 1298.
法燈國師 / 心地覚心



KYOMU YONIN - "Four Kyomu Persons"
虚無四人




Early 1670s? (no later than 1677 ... ):

KYOTAKU DENKI - "Record of the Transmission of the Imitated Bell"

Kyotaku denki is a charmingly fabricated fairy tale (!) about a brave Japanese Buddhist monk who once journeyed to China to study Zen (Chinese: Ch'an/Chan) there.

According to the story the monk made good friends with a Chinese Buddhist layman who taught him a flute melody that had been handed down to him through very many generations.
The melody was titled Kyorei, "The Imitated Bell", or: "The False Bell".
Being back home in Japan, the monk settled down in the neighbourhood of a provincial seaport where he founded a small temple in the mountains. There he was approached by a very eager disciple who studied the flute intensely and soon became a master of the magical melody that the monk shared with him.

Next, the diligent student went out on a pilgrimage where he received the mysterious inspiration for two new flute melodies, and his master the monk, helped him give the tunes some proper, very fine titles, namely Mukaiji, and Kokū.
The student's name was "Kichiku", the monk teacher's: "Kakushin".
虚鐸伝記

In Tsuge Gen'ichi's translation of 1977 we are also told,

&"There were four more students - - Kokusaku, Risei, Hōfu and Sōjo - - who also learned this flute well. They were known to the world under the (collective) title Shikoji ("Four Devoted Men")."

To be continued soon ... Sept. 15, 2018


1677:

REIHŌ-JI - "Temple of the Law of the Bell"
The existence of his important komusō temple in the neighbourhood of the capital Edo is evidenced for the first time by a document issued in the summer of 1677 by that temple itself.
鈴法寺




1682-1686:

MYŌAN-JI - "Temple of Superb Darkness" - quite plausibly a however misspelled reference to the first Myōan Temple in Eastern Kyōto.
Listed in a multi-volume topographical work describing Kyōto and vicinity, dated 1682-1686.
妙暗寺




1687:

KAIDŌ DESHI - "Coastal Route Disciple(s)"
This appellation first appears in a document issued by the Edo/Tōkyō temple Reihō-ji in 1687.
s海道弟子




1694:

HON-KYOKU - "Basic (or, Original) Music Piece(s)"
The term appears for the first time in recorded history in an important Kyōto Myōan-ji document dated 1694, most probably authored by Engetsu Rōgen, that temple's first historical, genuine chief administrator who died in 1695.
本曲



HONSOKU DESHI - "Basic Rule(s) Disciple(s)
This appellation is first observed in the above mentioned Myōan-ji document dated 1694.
本則弟子



TAKU-HATSU - "Entrusting with a Bowl / Presenting a (beggar's) Bowl"
This is the oldest known recorded reference to the komusō's practice of "religious" begging, found in the above mentioned 1694 document.
托鉢




18th CENTURY:

1735:

HŌKI - "Dharma Tool"/"Buddhist Instrument"
The oldest known mention of this very central term is found in the important Kyōto Myōan-ji document titled Kyorei-zan engi narabi ni sankyorei-fu ben.
法器



Mid-18th CENTURY:

ICHI-ON JŌBUTSU - "One Sound Become Buddha"
Description of ascetic shakuhachi practice attributed to Kurosawa Kinko, 黒沢琴古 , 1710-1771.
一音成仏



ONSEI SEPPŌ - "Sound-Voice Sermon"
Attributed to Kurosawa Kinko.
音声説法




19th CENTURY:

Material regarding the 19th century is being prepared.




20th CENTURY:

Post-WW2 Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology & Terminology Innovations


1950:

SUIZEN - "Blow(ing) (i.e. playing a flute) Contemplation"
This term was most certainly invented and introduced by Yasuda Tenzan, 安田天山, 1909-1994, the first head monk of the modern Myōan Temple in SE Kyōto, during the period of 1950 to 1953.
吹禅



1960:

GYŌ no ONGAKU - "Ascetic Music"
This term was introduced in 1960 by Uramoto Setchō, 浦本浙潮, 1891-1965.
音楽



1977:

SHAKUHACHI ZEN - "Shakuhachi (bamboo flute) Contemplation"
The first person to introduce this term most probably was japanologist James H. Sanford in 1977.
尺八禅



SHŪYŌ no SHAKUHACHI - "Mental Discipline Shakuhachi"
Term used by Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin, 1904-1998, 芳村普庵宗心 , in a letter to T.O. in 1977.

The oldest known use of the term in connection with ascetic shakuhachi practice, however, is dated 1614.

修養 尺八



ZEN SHAKUHACHI - "Meditative/Contemplative/Ascetic Shakuhachi"
Term used by Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin in a letter to T.O. in 1977.
禅尺八



No later than Spring 1978:

MU-KU-TEKI SUIZEN - "No Hole(s) Flute Blow (i.e. play a flute) Contemplation"
This expression was invented and calligraphed no later than in Spring 1978 by Hirazumi Taizan, 平住台山 (died in 1983), the second head monk of the modern Myōan Temple in Kyōto who was inaugurated in 1953.
無孔笛吹禅



1985:

SUIZEN GODŌ - "Suizen Way of Spiritual Awakening"
This compound was calligraphed by Matsumoto Kyozan, 松本虚山,
n.d., in a collection of honkyoku in 1985.
吹禅悟道




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